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Copyright, 1904. 




This history is published in two volumes. The first volume 
contains the simple narrative, and the second is in the nature 
of an appendix, containing ample discussions of important 
events, a collection of biographies and many official docu- 
ments justifying and verifying the statements in this volume. 
At the end of each chapter is given the sources of the in- 
formation therein contained, and at the end of each volume 
is an index. 



One of the rarest exceptions in literature is a productiori 
devoid of personal feeling. Few indeed are the men, who, 
realizing that the responsibility for their writings will be 
for them alone to bear, will not utilize the advantage for the 
promulgation of things as they would like them to be. Many 
of the works of the Ancients fail to stand the test of modern 
historical criticism because the advancing conception of his- 
torical labors is getting farther and farther from discursive 
analysis and closer and closer to the presentation of plain, 
unvarnished facts. 

"History is philosophy teaching by example," says Diony- 
sins, and it is obvious that if we are to "judge the future by 
the past," that the main requisite is a complete record. "To 
study history," says Wilmot, "is to study literature. The 
biography of a nation contains all its works. No trifle is to 
be neglected. A mouldering medal is a letter of twenty cen- 
^ turies. Antiquities which have been beautifully called his- 

tory defaced, composed its fullest commentary." 

Parton, in the preface to his Life of Jackson, gives an 
apt illustration of the true historian's duty. A young clergy- 
man, fresh from the university, became rector of one of the 
oldest of English parishes. Examining his church, he found 
that a crust was falling from the walls. The wardens sug- 
gested whitewash, but the new rector discovered that white- 
wash had been applied too many times already, and that it 
was these surplus coats which were falling. 

Thereupon, he resolved that instead of applying more, he 
would remove that already on the walls. When this was 
done, the beautiful frescoes which had been obscured for 
many years wei'e exposed to the view. These paintings, 
some of them by the world's greatest artists, had been hidden 
in order that the cracks might be filled. The true beauty of 
the structure had been sacrificed to hide the natural results 


of man's imperfect work. After the restoration, the defects 
marred the glory of the decorations, yet it left a subject for 
study even if not for unqualified admiration. And above 
all, those viewing it could be possessed of the consciousness 
that they were beholding the truth — displeasing though it 
might be — yet unquestionably and plainly the truth. 

It is not for the writer of history to decide what shall and 
what shall not be recorded, any more than it is justifiable 
for a church-member to accept certain articles of his religion 
and repudiate the others ; each must be all-inclusive or of no 
importance. As a consequence, it is not within the proper 
bounds of historical endeavor to be argp.imentative. The 
person who investigates and accumulates facts for the pur- 
pose of strengthening his pre-conceived opinions is not a 
historian. History's worst enemy is the writer who distorts 
facts to bolster prejudice. Histories should not be intended 
to convince, but to enlighten. The true historian's duty is 
to uncover the naked truth, and though this be a disagreea- 
ble task, it is duty nevertheless. In the words of Lord 
Bacon, the reader should "Reade not to Contradict, and Con- 
fute; Nor to Beleeve and Take for granter; Nor to Finde 
Talke and Discourse; But to Weigh and Consider." 

In this History of Mecklenburg County, the author has 
endeavored to present an historical record, not an historical 
discussion. "Facts are stubborn," and when they are all in 
hand, it is well to let them speak for themselves. 

D. A. Tompkins. 

December i, 1903. 



Brief Outline of the Discussion— Extract from Wheeler's History. 
— Charlotte Democrat of July 8, 1873— Preface to Martin's His- 
tory of North Carolina — Correspondence Between Adams and 
Jefferson — Extracts from the Raleigh Register — Certificates of 
Men who Knew of the Convention — Instructions to Mecklen- 
burg Delegates — Three Copies of the Declaration and the Re- 
solves of May 31 — Hitherto Unpublished Correspondence Be- 
tween John Vaughn, Hon. Peter Force, Gov. D. L. Swain and 
Hon. George Bancroft — References and List of Publications on 
the ' Subject 


Unveiling in Charlotte in 1898 Attended with Impressive Ceremo- 
nies. — Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson was Orator of the Occasion. — 
First Monument Association Incorporated in 1842. — Declaration 
Poem by Rev. W. W. Moore, of Virginia. 


Young Men Destroyed Ammunition and Supplies Intended for Use 
Against the Regulators. — Gov. Tryon's Proclamation of Pardon 
Excepted Them. — Leading Citizens Later Petitioned in Their 
Behalf and Secured the Pardon. — Col. Moses Alexander Pre- 
sented the Petition. 


Condensed Items of Interest in the Lives of Persons Prominent in 
Mecklenburg History. — Brief Biographies Alphabetically Ar- 


Born in that Part of Mecklenburg Which was Made Into Union in 
1842. — Moved Over Into South C. rolina When a Few Weeks Old. 
—Evidence of Those Who Were Present at His Birth.— Col. E. H. 
Walkup's Publication. 




Amusements of the Settlers of Mecklenburg. — County Muster and 
Assemblies. — Horse Racing and Betting.— Liquor Used Freely 
at Home and at Public Places. — ^The Old Taverns and Their 


First Settlers Used Pennsylvania and Virginia Currency.— Paper 
Money Discounted Nearly One-third.— Many Kinds of Coins 
Used.— Federal Currency Established in 1792. 



Miscellaneous Information Summarized in Paragraphs. — The March 
of Mecklenburg Troops to Hillsboro. — Governor Tryon*s Visit 
. in the County. — Sentiment Pertaining to the Regulators and the 


NOTES ON CHAPTER II. (The Indians.) 

Items Regarding Important Events. — ^Very Few Relics Found in 
Mecklenburg. — Correspondence Between Governors of North 
Carolina and South Carolina Respecting the Catawba. 



Coming of Rev. Hugh McAden. — Rev. Alexander Craighead With- 
draws from the Presbyterian Synod and Comes to North Caro- 
lina. — Established Church of England Met With Much Discour- 
agement in Mecklenburg. 



Historic Anticipations— Discoveries in Florida— First Find in the 
County — Geology of Mecklenburg — Development of Mining — Sta- 
tistics of the Branch Mint in Charlotte. 




Complete List of the Members of the Greneral Assembly From This 
County From 1764 to 1903.— Martin Phifer and Richard Barry 
Were the First 



Five Companies Sent From This County to the War with England 
Caused by the Searching of American Vessels for British Sail- 
ors.— A Total of Four Hundred and Thirty-Three Enlisted Men.* 



Roster of Officers and Men of the Twenty-one Companies Sent From 
This County.— 2,735 Soldiers and Only 2,021 Voters.— Number 
Killed, Wounded or Died.*-^List of Promotions. 



Roster of the Troops in the Company Organized in Charlotte in 
April of 1847.*- Green W. Caldwell was Captain and He and the 
Lieutenants Were Honored by Seats in the General Assembly 
After the End of the War.— The Total Number of the Soldiers 
was Seventy-nine, and Eleven of Them Died in the Service. 



Account of the Service Rendered by Mecklenburg Troops.— Rosters 
of the Three White Companies and the Colored Company.* — 
Charlotte Soldiers Among the First Americans to Land in 




Names of the Preachers who have Selrved the Leading Churches of 
Charlotte, With the Number of Years of Service of Each. 

CHAPTER XVin .195 


A Brief Sketch of the Progressive Town Which Has Grown up 
Around the College.— Has Macadam Streets and Factories, and 
a Large Business is Done. — The Corporation Dates From 1879. 



Brief Sketch of the Growth of the Town Which was Built Where 
President Polk was Bom. — In Fifty Years it has Developed- 
Into a Prosperous Community With Factories and a Population 
of Seven Hundred. — Creditable Churches and Schools, and 
Names of Some Prominent Families. 



Characteristics of the Mecklenburg Negro. — Comparative Effects of 
Slavery and Freedom on the Increase of Population. — Tribute 
to the Memory of Major Ross. — Important Dates in Mecklen- 
burg History. — List of Mayors of Charlotte.— Acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly Creating Mecklenburg, Establishing" Charlotte 
and Permanently Locating the Court House. — County Road 


British Map of Mecklenburg in 1780 Frontispiece 

Claremont Academy 1 

Sugar Creek Church 1 

Signatures of Prominent Characters in Mecklenburg History. .16-33 

Coat of Arms of the Phifer family, 1760 44 

Proclamation Money 44 

Receipt, 1773 56 

Receipt Signed by Thos. Polk in 1773 56 

Monument Commemorating the Mclntyre Skirmish, Oct. 3, 1780 60 

Mrs. Rachel Holton 64 

Thos. J. Holton, Editor of the Charlotte Journal 64 

James W. Osborne 67 

William Davidson 69 

Henry Bartlett Williams 71 

W. K. Phifer 72 

General Hugh Waddell 74 

General Joseph Graham 76 

David Parks 78 

Lieutenant K. C. Davidson 81 

W. F. Davidson 82 

Map of Vicinity of Jackson's Birthplace 84 

Old Wilson Place 86 

Alexander Rock House 86 

Extracts from Copy Books in use in Mecklenburg County 

Schools in 1850 88 

Note Given in 1767 90 

Bill for Teaching, 1822 90 

Sale Notice, 1838 92 

Contract, 1767 94 

Confederate Currency, 1864 96 

North Carolina Currency, 1866 100 

Itemized Bill for "lyearning," 1798 102 

United States Bank Note 104 

Revolutionary Currency 112 

Revolutionary State Money 132 

Tomb of Thomas Polk 136 

Receipt, 1783 136 

Bill of Account, 1767 140 


Bill for Subscription, 1792 144 

Stage Line Way-Bill, 1846 160 

United States Currency 180 

State Currency 184 

Contract Dated in 1737 192 

Revolu-tionary Currency 196 

Contract, 1765 197 

Negro Passes 199 

Bill of Sale, 1747 204 

Arab- African 208 

Saracen- African 208 

Dinka-Nf gro 209 

Guinea-Negro 209 

(Volume I., Page 166.) 

(See Index to Volume I.) 



Brief Outline of the Discussion — Extract from Wheeler's History. 
—Charlotte Democrat of July 8, 1873 — Preface to Martin's Hia- 
tory of North Carolina — Correspondence Between Adams and 
Jeffersoii — Extracts from the Raleigh Register — Certificates of 
Men who Knew of the Convention — Instructions to Mecklen- 
burg Delegates — Three Copies of the Declaration and the Re- 
solves of May 31 — Hitherto Unpublished Correspondence Be- 
tween John Vaughn, Hon. Peter Force, Gov. D. L. Swain and 
Hon. George Bancroft — ^References ana List of Publications on 
the Subject. 

The controversy regarding the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence has occupied the time and attention of 
many of America's most profound thinkers and writers. 
Some of them contend that the evidence is sufficient, while 
others maintain that it is not sufficient and that the actual 
Declaration of Independence was not made as is claimed. 

•Conclusive proof of a historical proposition depends upon 
contemporaneous records, personal testimony of reliable 
persons acquainted with the facts, and traditions. Now, 
suppose at this late date, some one should question the au- 
thenticity of the National Declaration of Independence, 
made in Philadelphia, July 4, 1776. First would be 
shown a verbatim copy of the real original which was 
signed July 4, 1776, and in the days following as new dele- 
gates arrived. Then there would be the contemporaneous 
periodicals, personal correspondence and the known trend of 
public sentiment toward independence. In proof of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration, we have all this and in addition, 
the specific statements of a dozen men who were present and 
participated in the proceedings. Why is it, then, that there 
was ever any doubt regarding the action of the people of 

In the first place, at the time the Mecklenburg Dec- 


laxation was made, each i>art of the country was too busy 
with home affairs to pay much attention to outside matters. 
There were but few newspapers in this section, yet the Cape 
Fear Mercury and the Charleston Gazette and Country Jour- 
nal mentioned the proceedings. The men of the county were 
busy with preparations for war, and as every one concerned 
knew of the action, there was naturally no reason to make 
superfluous records. The official papers were burned in the 
fire which destroyed John McKnitt Alexander's house in 
1800. The National Declaration was made fourteen months 
after the Mecklenburg Declaration and, of course, overshad- 
owed the action of the latter until long after the smoke of 
battle had cleared away. Consequently, there was but little 
contemporaneous evidence, and when the Mecklenburg Dec- 
laration became of national interest in 1819, most of the an- 
tagonism to it was based on the false belief that the trend 
of sentiment in North Carolina was not so strong in 1775 
as to render probable a declaration of independence, and not 
until the publication of the Colonial Records, in recent years, 
was the falsity of that belief established. These records 
show, by correspondence and other official documents, that 
Thomas Jefferson was conservative in his statement to John 
Adams that ''No State was more fixed or forward than 
North Carolina.''* The people of the State, acting independ- 
ently, convened a congress at New Bern in August, 1774. 
Gov. Martin left the State and royal authority ended in 
North Carolina in June, 1775. The Battle of Moore's Creek 
Bridge was fought February 27, 1776, and the Fourth Pro- 
vincial Congress, held at Halifax in April, 1776, declared 
for independence. So it appears not only natural that Meck- 
lenburg should declare her independence, but that she zvas 
independent and with a government of her own from May 
20, 1775. It is to be remembered also, that Mecklenburg 
then was about five times the present size, and that the pro- 
ceedings of the convention were, participated in by represen- 

♦Correspondence, July 9, 1819. 


tative men from other sections, so that while the Declara* 
tion could not be construed as a State document, yet it un- 
questionably represented the attitude of the entire State 
All North Carolina was independent, but only Mecklenburg 
made an official declaration of the fact. 

In the latter part of the year 1818, the subject was undei; 
discussion among the North Carolina representatives in 
Congress, and Nathaniel Macon, William Davidson and 
others corresponded with representative men of this section] 
the correspondence being published in the Raleigh Register 
in 1819, and in the Essex (Mass.) Register of June 5, 1819, 
and in other papers. The Essex Register fell into the hands 
of John Adams and resulted in the letters regarding the sub- 
ject between Adams and Jefferson. Jefferson's Writings 
and Martin's History of North Carolina were published in 
1829, and the discussion was reopened. In 1831, the State 
issued a pamphlet under direction of a legislative committee, 
which was designed to forever settle all dispute regarding 
the declaration. 

With the people of Mecklenburg, there had never been 
any doubt, as the old traditions were firmly and generally 
established. In 1809, nearly ten years before the contro- 
versy began, the Raleigh Minerva published the declama- 
tion of a school boy, William Wallace, at Sugar Creek 
Academy, delivered June i, 1809. The teacher was Rev, 
Samuel C. Caldwell, a son-in-law of John McKnitt Alexan- 
der. The declamation began: "On the 19th of May, a day 
sacredly exulting to every Mecklenburg bosom, two dele- 
gates duly authorized from each militia company met in 
Charlotte. After a cool and deliberate investigation of the 
causes and extent of our differences with Great Britain, and 
taking a review of probable results, pledging their all in sup- 
port of its rights and liberties, they solemnly entered into 
and published a full and determined Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, renouncing forever all allegiance, dependence, or 
connection with Great Britain, dissolved all judicial and 
military establishments emanating from the British Crown^ 


and established others on principles corresponding with their 
declaration, which went into immediate operation, all of 
which was transmitted to Congress by express, and proba- 
bly expedited the general Declaration of Independence. May 
we ever act worthy of such predecessors!'' 

On December i8, 1838, Colonel Peter Force, a distin- 
guished antiquarian, found in the New York Journal of 
June 29, 1775, a portion of certain resolves by the people of 
Mecklenburg, made in May, 1775. He found a second copy 
in the Massachusetts Spy of July 12, 1775. William Kelby, 
assistant librarian of the New York Historical Society, 
found that the New York JotirncU had copied the resolves 
from a Charleston paper. The Northern papers had copied 
the first four resolves, with the preamble, and had summar- 
ized the others. At the instance of Gov. Swain, Dr. Joseph 
Johnston found in the Charleston library a copy of the South 
Carolina Gazette and Country Journal of Tuesday, June 13, 
1775. About the same time, Mr. Bancroft, then American 
minister to Great Britain, discovered the same number of the 
South Carolina Gazette, which had been forwarded to the 
British government by the Governor of Georgia, accom- 
panied by the following letter : "By the enclosed paper, your 
Lordship will see the extraordinary resolves of the people of 
Charlotte-town, in Mecklenburg county, and I should not be 
surprised if the same should be done everywhere else.'' 

The original copy was destroyed in the fire which burned 
the house of John McKnitt Alexander. A copy of the orig- 
inal was sent before the burning of the house to the histo- 
rian, Williamson, in New York, and it, together with the 
other sources of his history, were destroyed by a fire in that 
city. John McKnitt Alexander wrote the Declaration from 
memory, and with the exception of some superfluous adjec- 
tives, it is presumed to be a fairly accurate copy. This was 
sent to Gen. William R. Davie and recovered after his death, 
and is now in the library at Chapel Hill. It is known as 
the Davie copy. The Martin copy is so called from its pub- 
lication in Martin's History of North Carolina. This book 


was published in 1829, but it was prepared, in final form, be 
fore 1809. A third copy, called the Garden copy, was pub 
lished in 1828 by Alexander Garden'* of Lee's Legion, and 
this is almost exactly identical with the Martin copy, whiclj 
is regarded as the authentic copy. Garden could not hav^ 
gotten it from Martin's History, which was published a yeai 
later, and Martin testifies to Dr. Hawkes that he did not get 
his copy from Garden, and did not know that Garden had i 
copy. Garden was an intimate friend and associate of Dn 
William Read, of Charleston, who was a surgeon-general 
of Greene's army, and was stationed in Charlotte during the 
Revolution, and who attended Dr. Ephraim Brevard in his 
last sickness at the house of John McKnitt Alexander. 
Garden had, therefore, ample opportunity for obtaining at; 
first hand the sources of information for his chapter on the 
Mecklenburg Declaration, in which Dr. Read is mentioned 
as the source of his information. 

While Martin's history was published in 1829, the author 
testifies in the preface that he had gathered the materials for 
this history before 1809, when he was sent to the Mississippi 
Territory by President Madison. And that being warned 
by an attack of sickness, that he might not live to publish the 
history, he determined "to put the work immediately to press 
in the condition it was in when it reached New Orleans.'^ 
The references he makes are to "Records, Magazines, Ga- 
zettes." No one can read the Colonial Records, lately pub- 
lished, and then read the digest of them in Martin's History, 
without being struck with the accuracy and impartiality of 
his story. As to this particular document of the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration, Martin testified in a conversation with 
Rev. F. L. Hawkes, D. D., that he had obtained it "in the 
western part of the State prior to the year 1800."** Judge 
Francis Xavier Martin, LL. D., was an eminent jurist and 

♦Garden's Anecdotes of the Revolution. 
, ♦♦"The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence," an Address 
by Dr. Hawks in New York, December 16, 1852. Published in "Rev- 
olutionary History of North Carolina," 1853. 


scholar who emigrated from France to America in 1782, 
and settled in New Bern. By a resolution of the Assembly, 
he was employed to compile and edit the "British Statutes" 
of North Carolina, and devoted the years 1791-92 to that 
work. He was engaged by the Legislature, in 1794, and 
again in 1803, to edit the private acts of the Assembly. All 
this time he was gathering materials for his history of North 
Carolina, and must have known those members of the As- 
sembly from Mecklenburg who were participants in the 
scenes of the 19th and 20th of May, such as Robert Irwin, 
James Harris, William Polk, George Graham, and Joseph 
Graham. In 1806-7, he was a member of the Legislature 
and again associated with George Graham, and Nathaniel 
Alexander, Mecklenburg's first occui>ant of the Governor's 
seat, who was a son-in-law of Col. Thomas Polk. Martin 
had the opportunity for securing original documents, the 
habit of historical investigation, the tastes and judgment of 
a scholar, and the judicial temperament which weighs evi- 
dence and rejects that which is false. His testimony alone 
would be sufficient to establish the fact that the committee 
of Mecklenburg citizens passed the resolutions which he 
prints in full, on the 20th day of May, 1776. 

In the year 1793, Dr. Hugh Williamson, who had an- 
nounced his purpose to write a history of North Carolina, 
secured a copy of the Declaration from Mr. Alexander, 
which copy was seen by Gov. Stokes in Fayetteville in 1793, 
in the well-known handwriting of John McKnitt Alexan- 
der, as Gov. Stokes testifies.* In the year 1800, the Alexan- 
der residence, with the original copy of the Declaration and 
all the other proceedings of the Mecklenburg committee, 
were destroyed by fire. 

The following was affixed to the Davie copy in the hand- 
writing of John McKnitt Alexander: "It may be worthy 
of notice here to observe that the foregoing statement, 
though fundamentally correct, may not literally correspond ^ 

♦Dr. Hawks' Address. (See Page 8.) 


with the original record of the transactions of said delega- 
tion and court of enquiry, as all those records and papers 
were burnt with the house on April 6, 1800; but previous 
to that time of 1800, a full copy of said records, at the re- 
quest of Dr. Hugh Williamson, then of New York, but for- 
merly a representative in Congress from this State, was for- 
warded to him by Col. William Polk, in order that those 
early transactions might fill their proper place in a history 
of this State then writing by said Dr. Williamson, in New 

"Certified to the best of my recollection and belief, this 
3d day of September, 1800." 

The Davie copy is a free version of the Martin copy. It 
begins with the past tense, ''Whosoever abetted,'' showing 
the act of memory involved. There is a superfluity of ad- 
jectives, "unchartered and dangerous," "inherent and 
inalienable," which may be an echo of the National Declara- 
tion, though "rights inalienably ours" is an expression found 
in the articles of association adopted by Congress in 1774. 
"Americans" becomes "American patriots" in the old man's 
memory. A preamble is put to the fourth resolution, "as 
we now acknowledge the existence and control of no law or 
legal officer, civil or military" — "all and each" becomes "all, 
each and every." Instead of "be entitled to exercise the 
same powers and authorities as heretofore," Mr. Alexander 
gives as the substance of it, "is hereby reinstated in his 
former command an authority." "According to law" is 
changed to "according to said adopted laws," and "the love 
of liberty and of country" is recalled as "the love of country 
and the fire of freedom." The resolution about carrying the 
copy to Philadelphia is omitted in Mr. Alexander's account. 
Otherwise the copies agree. 

It is impossible to believe that in writing down his recol- 
lection of the resolutions adopted, Mr. Alexander should 
have certified that the copy was fundamentally correct, and 
at the same time have appealed to an exact copy for proof of 
the fundamental correctness, the exact copy to be published, 


as he thought, to the world, unless he was confident that his 
recollection was reliable. When the fire destroyed the origi- 
nal, he remarked that the declaration was safe, as Dr. Wil- 
liamson had a copy. 

Dr. Williamson did not complete his history as projected, 
stopping with the year 1771. When the missing copy was 
sought for, it was found that his papers also had been de- 
stroyed by a fire in New York. The papers from which 
Martin compiled his history were sent to France and have 
disappeared. The data collected for Garden's Anecdotes has 
also been lost, and no copy of the Cape Fear Mercury of 
June, 1775, has ever come to light except the copy which 
Gov. Martin sent to London and which Mr. Stevenson, of 
Virginia, borrowed and did not return.* 

They who undertook the task of proving that the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration was not made, chose as their ground 
for argument that some "Resolves" were adopted May 31, 
and that these "Resolves" did not go so far as the Declara- 
tion. They proved beyond all doubt that the Resolves were 
made, while their opponents in the discussion proved that 
the Declaration was made. Hence, we were given conclu- 
sive evidence of two meetings, one of which completed the 
work of the other. Some writers have lost the whole ques- 
tion in a hazy attempt to merge the two sets of resolutions 
and the two conventions into one, and hence have not noted 
the fact that the Declaration of May 20 declared the inde- 
pendence of Mecklenburg county, and that the Resolves of 
May 31 proclaimed the independence of the United Colonies. 

{Rev. Francis L. Hawks, D. D., LL. D,)** 

No less than seven witnesses of most unexceptionable character 
swear positively that there was a meeting of the people of Mecklen- 
burg at Charlotte, on the 19th and 20th days of May, 1775; that cer- 
tain declarations distinctly declaring independence of Great Britain 
were then and there prepared by a committee, read publicly to the 

♦Record in the British Museum. 
**In an Address. (See Note, Page 5.) 


people by Col. Thomas Polk, and adopted by acclamation; that the^ 
were present and took part in the proceedings themselves, and tha* 
John McKnitt Alexander was a Secretary of the meeting. Thes« 
seven swear positively to the date, the 19th and 20th days of May 
1775. * * * Now as to the paper sent to Williamson, Hon. Mont 
fort Stokes was Governor of North Carolina in the year 1831; whiU 
he occupied that high position, he testified that in the year 1793i 
(mark the date), he saw in the possession of Dr. Williamson a copj 
of the documents of the 20th of May, 1775, in the handwriting o< 
John McKnitt Alexander, together with a letter to Williamson fron| 
Alexander, and that he conversed with Williamson on the subject. 

(Wheeler* 8 History of North Carolina^ Page 258.) 
The first American manifesto against the encroachments ol 
power, the elective franchise, and the unwise interference of trade, 
was made in North Carolina as early as 1678, and nearly two 
hundred years before our independence was declared. Thus were 
sown, deep and broad, the seeds of liberty among her people with 
a liberal hand. * * * That the people of North Carolina should 
always have been. 

"Men who knew their rights, and knowing dared maintain," 
is evident from every page of her history. But, that her sons should, 
on the 20th day of May, 1775, assemble at Charlotte, at a period of 
doubt, of darkness, and of danger, without concert with other 
States, without assurance of support from any quarter, and there 
"dissolve the political bands which connected them with the mother 
country," and there "declare themselves a free and independent 
people, and of right, ought to be soverign and self governing," is a 
subject full of moral sublimity, and a source of elevating State 

{Charlotte Democrat, July 8, 1873.)* 
A highly intelligent gentleman, who has lived in Charlotte over 
fifty years, told us the other day that at a celebration in Charlotte on 
the 20th of May, 1835, he saw in procession seventy-five persons 
who were present when the Declaration was made on the 20th of 
May, 1775; and who testified that the meeting of the 31st of May 
was an adjourned one from the 20th. 

{Preface to Martinis History of North Carolina.) 
The writer imagined he had collected sufficient materials to 
justify the hope of producing a history of North Carolina, worth 

♦Carnegie Free Library, of Charlotte. 


the attention of his fellow citizens, and he had arranged all those 
that related to transactions, anterior to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, when, in 1809, Mr. Madison thought his services were 
wanted, first in the Mississippi territory and afterwards in that of 
New Orleans; and when the latter territory became a State, the 
new government thought proper to retain him. 

He had entertained the hope that the time would arrive when 
disengaged from public duties, he might resume the work he had 
commenced in Carolina; but years have rolled away without bring- 
ing on this period; and a shock his health lately received during 
the year of his great climacteric, has warned him that the moment 
is arrived when his intended work must engage his immediate 
attention, or be absolutely abandoned. 

A circumstance, for some time, recommended the latter alter- 
native. The public prints stated, that a gentleman of known 
industry and great talents, who has filled a very high office in North 
Carolina, was engaged in a similar work; but several years have 
elapsed since,, and nothing favors the belief, that the hopes which 
he had excited will soon be realized. 

This gentleman had made application for the materials not 
published and they would have been forwarded to him, if they had 
been in a condition of being useful to any but him who had col-i 
lected them. In their circuitous way from Newbem to New York 
and New Orleans, the sea water found its way to them: since their 
arrival, the mice, worms and the variety of insects of a humid and 
warm climate, have made great ravages among them. The ink of 
several very ancient documents has grown so pale as to render 
them nearly illegible, and notes hastily taken on a journey are in 
so cramped a hand that they are not to be deciphered by any 
person but him who made them. 

The determination has been taken to put the work immediately 
to the press, in the condition it was when it reached New Orleans: 
this has prevented any use being made of Williamson's History of 
North Carolina, a copy of which did not reach the writer's hands 
till after his arrival In Louisiana. 

The expectation is cherished, that the people of North Carolina 
will receive with indulgence a work ushered to light under circum- 
stances so untoward. 

Very ample notes and materials are ready for a volume, relating 
to the events of the Revolutionary War, and another, detailing sub- 
sequent transactions, till the writer's departure from Newbem, in 
1809. If God yield him life and health, and his fellow citizens in 

me;cki.enburg deci^ration controversy. 1 1 

North Carolina appear desirous these should follow the two vol- 
umes now presented to them. It Is not Improbable they will appear. 

Fbancis Xayieb Mabtin. 
Gentilly, near New Orleans, July 20, 1829. 

(John Adams to Thomas Jefferson.)* 

"QuiNCY, 22d June, 1819. 
^'Deab Sib, 

'*May I enclose you one of the greatest curiosities, and one of the 
deepest mysteries that ever occurred to me; it is in the Esssex 
Register of June the 5th, 1819. It is entitled, from the Raleigh 
Register J 'Declaration of Independence.' How Is it possible that 
this paper should have been concealed from me to this day. Had 
It been communicated to me in the time of it, I know, if you do not 
know, that it would have been printed in every Whig newspaper 
upon the continent. You know, that if I had possessed it, I would 
have made the Hall of Congress echo and re-echo with it fifteen 
months before your Declaration of Independenc*^. What a poor 
ignorant, malicious, short-sighted, crapulous mass is Tom Paine's 
Common Sense in comparison with this paper. Had I known it 
I would have commented upon it from the day you entered Con- 
gress till the fourth of July, 1776. 

"The genuine sense of America, at that moment was never so 
well expressed before nor since. Richard Caswell, William Hooper, 
Bnd Joseph Hewes, the then Representatives of North Carolina in 
Congress, you know as well as I; and you know that the unanimity 
of the States finally depended on the vote of Joseph Hewes, and was 
finally determined by him; and yet history is to ascribe the Ameri- 
can Revolution to Thomas Paine. Sat Yerbum sapienti. 
"I am, dear sir, your invariable friend, 

"John Adams. 

"Pbesident Jeffebson." 

(ThomOrS Jefferson to John Adams.)** 

This letter is published in the furtherance of the author's 
desire to give all the evidence. Mr. Jefferson's misinforma- 
tion and mistakes are numerous. He expresses doubt as to 
the publication in the Raleigh Register and to the exist- 

♦Jones' Defence of the Revolutionary History of North Carolina. 
Page 296. 

♦♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


ence of J. McKnitt (Alexander). He mentions "a copy 
sent to the dead Caswell," when in truth the copy was sent 
to William R. Davie who was living at the time Jefferson 
was writing. He refers to "historians of the adjacent States" 
and to his own and Patrick Henry's biographers as though 
he did not know they would be the last of all to acknowledge 
that the Revolution began in North Carolina. 

He speaks of "Williamson, whose memory did not recol- 
lect in the history he has written of North Carolina, this 
gigantic step of its county of Mecklenburg;" and William- 
son's history reached only to the year 1771. And worst of 
all, he speaks disparagingly of Hooper and Hewes, who ad- 
vocated independence long before he did. (See Volume I., 

page 44.) 

"MoNTiCELLO, July 9, 1819. 

"Deab Sib,— I am in debt to you for your letters of May the 21st, 
27tli, and June the 22nd. The first, delivered me by Mr. Greenwood, 
gave me the gratification of his acquaintance; and a gratification it 
always is, to be made acquainted with gentlemen of candor, worth, 
and information, as I found Mr. Greenwood to be. That on the 
subject of Mr. Samuel Adams Wells, shall not be forgotten in time 
and place, when it can be used £o his advantage. 

"But what has attracted my peculiar notice, is the paper from 
Mecklenburg county, of North Carolina, published in the Essex 
Register, which you were so kind as to enclose in your last, of June 
the 22nd. And you seem to think it genuine. I believe it spurious. 
I deem it to be a very unjustifiable quiz, like that of the volcano, 
so minutely related to us having broken out in North Carolina, some 
half dozen years ago, in that part of the country, and perhaps in 
that very county of Mecklenburg, for I do not remember its precise 
locality.** If this paper be really taken from the Raleigh Register, 
as quoted, I wonder it should have escaped Ritchie, who culls what 
is good from every paper, as the bee from every fiower; and the 
National Intelligencer, too, which is edited by a North Carolinian; 
and that the fire should blaze out all at once in Essex, one thou- 
sand miles from where the spark is said to have fallen. But iff 
really taken from the Raleigh Register, who is the narrator, and 
is the name subscribed real, or is it as fictitious as the paper itself? 
It appeals, too, to an original book, which is burnt, to Mr. Alexander, 
who is dead, to a joint letter from Caswell, Hewes, and Hooper, all 

**The story was of a volcano in Buncombe county. — D. A. T. 


dead, to a copy sent to the dead Caswell, and another sent to Doctor 
Williamson, now probably dead, whose memory did not recollect, 
in the history he has written of North Carolina, this gigantic step 
of its county of Mecklenburg. Horry, too, is silent in his history 
of Marion, whose scene of action was the country bordering on 
Mecklenburg. Ramsay, Marshall, Jones, Girardin, Wirt, historians 
of the adjacent States, all silent. When Mr. Henry's resolutions, 
far short of independence, flew like lightning through every paper 
and kindled both sides of the Atlantic, this flaming declaration of 
the same date, of the independence of Mecklenburg county, of North 
Carolina, absolving it from the British allegiance, and abjuring all 
political connection with that nation, although sent to Congress, 
too, is never heard of. It is not known even a twelve-month after, 
when a similar proposition is first made in that body. Armed with 
this bold example, would not you have addressed our timid brethren 
in peals of thunder, on their tardy fears? Would not every advo- 
cate of independence have rung the glories of Mecklenburg county, 
in North Carolina, in the ears of the doubting Dickinson and others, 
who hung so heavily on us? Yet the example of independent Meck- 
lenburg county, in North Carolina, was never once quoted. The 
paper speaks, too, of the continued exertions of their delegation 
(Caswell, Hooper, Hewes,)*in the cause of liberty and independence/ 
Now, you remember as well as I do, that we had not a greater tory 
in Congress than Hooper;* that Hewes was very wavering, some- 
times firm, sometimes feeble, according as the day was clear or 
cloudy; that Caswell, indeed, was a good Whig, and kept these gen- 
tlemen to the notch, while he was present; but that he left us soon, 
and their line of conduct became then uncertain until Penn came, 
who fixed Hewes, and the vote of the State. I must not be understood 
as suggesting any doubtfulness in the State of North Carolina. No 
State was more fixed or forward. Nor do I affirm, positively, that 
this paper is a fabrication, because the proof of a negative can only 
be presumptive. But I shall believe it such until positive and 
solemn proof of its authenticity shall be produced. And if the 
name of McKnitt be real, and not a part of the fabrication, it needs 
a vindication by the production of such proof. For the present, I 
must be an unbeliever in the apocryphal gospel. 

"I am glad to learn that Mr. Ticknor has safely returned to his 
friends; but should have been much more pleased had he accepted 
the Professorship in our University, which we should have offered 
him in form. Mr. Bowditch, too, refuses us; so fascinating is the 

♦These Refiections on Hooper and Hewes are Disproven by Jones' 
Defence of the Revolutionary History of North Carolina. — D. A. T. 


vinculum of the dulce natale solum. Our wish is to procure native8» 
where they can be found, like these gentlemen, of the first order of 
acquirement in their respective lines; but preferring foreigners of 
the first order to natives of the second, we shall certainly have to 
go, for several of our Professors, to countries more advanced in 
science than we are. 

"I set out within three or four days for my other home, the 
distance of which, and its cross mails, are great impediments to 
epistolary communications. I shall remain there about two months; 
and there, here, and everywhere, I am and shall always be affection- 
ately and respectfully yours, 

"Th: Jefferson." 

{Raleigh Register, April 30, 1819.)* 
It is not, probably, known to many of our readers, that the citi- 
zens of Mecklenburg county, in this State, made a Declaration of 
Independence more than a year before Congress made theirs. The 
following document on the subject has lately come to the hands of 
the Editor from unquestionable authority, and is published that it 
may go down to posterity. 

North Carolina, Mecklenburg County, 

May 20, 1775. 
In the spring of 1775, the leading characters of Mecklenburg 
county, stimulated by that enthusiastic patriotism which elevates 
the mind above considerations of individual aggrandizement, and 
scorning to shelter themselves from the impending storm by sub- 
mission to lawless power, etc., etc., held several detached meetings, 
in each of which the individual sentiments were, "that the cause of 
Boston was the cause of all; that their destinies were indissolubly 
connected with those of their Eastern fellow citizens — and that 
they must either submit to all the impositions which an unprin- 
cipled, and to them an unrepresented. Parliament might impose — or 
support their brethren who were doomed to sustain the first shock 
of that power, which, if successful there, would ultimately over- 
whelm all in the common calamity." Conformably to these prin- 
ciples. Colonel T. Polk, through solicitation, issued an order to each 
Captain's company in the county of Mecklenburg, (then compris- 
ing the present county of Cabarrus,) directing each militia company 
to elect two persons, and delegate to them ample power to devise 
ways and means to aid and assist their suffering brethren in 
Boston, and also generally to adopt measures to extricate them- 
selves from the impending storm, and to secure unimpaired their 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


inalienable rights, privileges and liberties, from the dominant grasp- 
of British imposition and tyranny. 

In conformity to sa}d order, on the 19th of May, 1775, the said 
delegation met in Charlotte, vested with unlimited powers; at whick 
time official news, by express, arrived of the battle of Lexington on 
that day of the preceding month. Every delegate felt the value and 
importance of the prize, and the awful and solemn crisis which had 
arrived — every bosom swelled with indignation at the malice, invet- 
eracy, and insatiable revenge, developed in the late attack at Lex- 
ington. The universal sentiment was: let us not flatter ourselves 
that popular harangues, or resolves; that popular vapour will avert 
the storm, or vanquish our common enemy — let us deliberate — let 
us calculate the issue — the probable result; and then let us act with 
energy, as brethren leagued to preserve our property — our lives — 
and what is still more endearing, the liberties of America. Abror 
ham Alexander was then elected Chairman, and John M'Knitt Alex- 
ander. Clerk. After a free and full discussion of the various objects 
for which the delegation had been convened, it was unanimously 

(Here follows the Declaration.) 

A number of by-laws were also added, merely to protect the asso- * 
elation from confusion, and to regulate their general conduct as citi- 
zens. After sitting in the Court House all night, neither sleepy, 
hungry, nor fatigued, and after discussing every paragraph, they 
were all passed, sanctioned, and decreed, unanimously, about 2 
o'clock a. m.. May 20, In a few days, a deputation of said delegation 
convened, when Capt. James Jack, of Charlotte, was deputed as ex- 
press to the Congress at Philadelphia, with a copy of said Resolves 
and Proceedings, together with a letter addressed to our three repre- 
sentatives there, viz., Richard Caswell, William Hooper and Joseph 
Hewes — under express injunction, personally, and through the State 
representation, to use all possible means to have said proceedings 
sanctioned and approved by the General Congress. On the return 
of Captain Jack, the delegation learned that their proceedings were 
individually approved by the members of Congress, but that it was 
deemed premature to lay them before the House. A joint letter 
from said three Members of Congress was also received, compli- 
mentary of the zeal in the common cause, and recommending per- 
severance, order and energy.* 

The subsequent harmony, unanimity, and exertion in the cause 
of liberty and independence, evidently resulting from these regula- 

♦This letter was burned with the original Copy of the Declara- 
tion.— D. A. T. 


lions and the continued exertion of said delegation, apparently 
tranquilized this section of the State, and met with the concur- 
rence and high approbation of the Council of Safety, who held their 
sessions at Newbern and Wilmington, alternately, and who con- 
firmed the nomination and acts of the delegation in fheir official 

From this delegation originated the Court of Enquiry of this 
county, who constituted and held their first session in Charlotte — 
they then held their meetings regularly at Charlotte, at Col. James 
Harris's, and at Col. Phifer's, alternately, one week at each place. 
It was a Civil Court founded on military process. Before this Judi- 
cature, all suspicious persons were made to appear, who were for- 
mally tried and banished, or continued under guard. Its jurisdic- 
tion was as unlimited as toryism, and i 3 decrees as final as the con- 
fidence and patriotism of the country. Several were arrested and 
brought before them from Lincoln, Rowan and the adjacent coun- 

[The foregoing is a true copy of the papers on the above subject, 
left in my hands by John McKnitt Alexander, deceased. I find it 
mentioned on file that the original book was burned April, 1800. 
That a copy of the proceedings was sent to Hugh Williamson, in 
New York, then writing a History of North Carolina, and that a 
copy was sent to Gen. W. R. Davie. J. McKnitt.]* 

(Raleigh Register, Fehrucury 18, 1820.;** 


When this D(eclaration was first published in April last, some 
doubts were expressed in the Eastern papers as to its authenticity, 
(none of the Histories of the Revolution having noticed the circum- 
stance.) Col. William Polk, of this city, (who, though a mere youth 
at the time, was present at the meeting which made the Declaration, 
and whose father, being Colonel of the county, appears to have 
acted a conspicuous part on the occasion,) observing this, assured 
us of the correctness of the facts generally, though he thought there 
were errors as to the name of the Secretary, etc., and said that he 
should probably be able to correct these, and throw some further 
light on the subject, by inquiries amongst some of his old friends 
in Mecklenburg county. He has accordingly made inquiries, and 
communicated to us the following Documents as the result, which, 
we presume, will do away all doubts on the subject. 

♦Dr. Joseph McKnitt Alexander, son of John McKnitt Alexan- 
der.— D. A. T. 
♦♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 



^(Ud 'ifll^yu^ryty /a^.Md*^ 




{Certificate of Samuel Henderson.)* 

State o^ Nobth Cabolina, 
Mecklenbubo County. 
I, Samuel Henderson, do hereby certify, that the paper annexed 
was obtained by me from Maj. William Davie in its present situa- 
tion, soon after the death of his father. Gen. William R. Davie, and 
given to Doct. Joseph McKnitt by me. In searching for some par- 
ticular paper, I came across this, and, knowing the handwriting of 
John McKnitt Alexander, took it up, and,, examined it. Maj. Davie 
said to me (when asked how it became torn) his sisters had torn it, 
not knowing what it was. 
Given under my hand, this 25th November, 1830. 

Sam. Hendebson. 

[Note. — To this certificate of Doct Henderson is annexed the 
copy of the paper A, originally deposited by John McKnitt Alexan- 
der in the hands of Oen. Davie, whose name seems to have been 
mistaken by Mr. JefCerson for that of Gov. Caswell. See preface, 
pages 5 and 6. This paper is somewhat torn, but is entirely legible, 
and constitutes the "solemn and positive proof of authenticity" 
which Mr. Jefferson required, and which would doubtless have been 
satisfactory, had it been submitted to him.] 

(Captain Jack*8 Certificate.)* 

Having seen in the newspapers some pieces respecting the Declar- 
ation of Independence by the people of Mecklenburg county, in the 
State of North Carolina, in May, 1775, and being solicited to state 
what I know of that transaction; I would observe, that for some 
time previous to, and at the time those resolutions were agreed upon, 
I resided in the town of Charlotte, Mecklenburg county; was privy 
to a number of meetings of some of the most influential and leading 
characters of that county on the subject, before the flnal adoption 
of the resolutions — ^and at the time they were adopted; among those 
who appeared to take the lead, may be mentioned Hezekiah Alexan- 
der, who generally acted as chilrman; John McKnitt Alexander, 
as secretary; Abraham Alexander, Adam Alexander, Maj. John Da- 
vidson, Maj. (afterwards Gen.) Wm. Davidson, Col. Thomas Polk, 
Ezekiel Polk, Dr. Ephraim Brevard, Samuel Martin, Duncan Ochle- 
tree, William Willson, Robert Irvin. 

When the resolutions were flnally agreed on, they were publicly 
proclaimed from the Ck)urt-house door in the town of Charlotte, and 
received with every demonstration of joy by the inhabitants. 

I was then solicited to be the bearer of the proceedings to Con- 

*State Pamphlet, 1831. 


gress. I set out the following month, say June, and in passing 
through Salisbury, the General Court was sitting— at the request of 
the court I handed a copy of the resolutions to Col. Kennon, an At- 
torney, and they were read aloud in open court. Major William 
Davidson, and Mr. Avery, an attorney, called on me at my lodgings 
the evening after, and observed, they had heard of but one person, 
(a Mr. Beard) but approved of them. 

I then proceeded on to Philadelphia, and delivered the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration of Independence of May, 1775, to Richard Caswell 
and William Hooper, the delegates to Congress from the State of 
North Carolina. 

I am now in the eighty-eighth year of my age, residing in the 
county of Elbert, in the State of Georgia. I was in the Revolution- 
ary War, from the commencement to the close. I would further 
observe, that the Rev. Francis Cummins, a Presbyterian clergyman, 
of Greene county, in this State, was a student in the town of Char- 
lotte at the time of the adoption of the resolutions, and is as well, 
or perhaps better acquainted with the proceedings at that time, 
than any man now living. 

Col. William Polk, of Raleigh, in North Carolina, was living with 
his father Thomas, in Charlotte, at the time I have been speaking 
of, and although then too young to be forward in the business, yet 
the leading circumstances I have related cannot have escaped his 

James Jack. 

Signed this 7th Dec, 1819, in presence of 
Job Weston, C. C. O. 
James Oliver, Atto. at Law. 

(The Alexander Certificate.)* 

North Carolina, 
Cabarrus County, Nov. 29, 1830. 
We, the undersigned^ do hereby certify that we have frequently 
heard William S. Alexander, decea^ld, say that he, the said Wm. S. 
Alexander, was at Philadelphia, on mercantile business, in the early 
part of the summer of 1775, say in June; and that on the day that 
Gen. Washington left Philadelphia to take command of the North- 
em army,** he, the said Wm. S. Alexander, met with Capt. James 
Jack, who informed him, the said Wm. S. Alexander, that he, the said 
James Jack, was there as the agent or bearer of the Declaration of 
Independence made in Charlotte, on the twentieth day of May, sev- 

*State Pamphlet, 1831. 
♦♦June 23.— D. A. T. 


enteen hundred and seventy-five, by the citizens of Mecklenburg, 
then including Cabarrus, with instructions to present the same to 
the Delegates from North Carolina, and by them to be laid before 
Congress, and which he said he had done; in which Declaration the 
aforesaid citizens of Mecklenburg renounced their allegiance to the 
crown of Great Britain, and set up a government for themselves, un- 
der the title of The Committee of Safety. 
Given under our hands the date above written. 

Alphonso Alesandbb, 
Amos Alexander, 
J. McKnitt. 

(Francis Cummins' Certificate,)* 

Lexington, Ga., November 10, 1819. 

Dear Sib: — The bearer, the Hon. Thomas W. Cobb, has suggested 
to me that you had a desire to know something particularly of the 
proceedings of the citizens of Mecklenburg county, in North Carolina, 
about the beginning of our Revolutionary War. 

Previous to my becoming more particular, I will suppose you re- 
member the Regulation business, which took its rise in or before' 
the year 1770, and issued and ended in a battle between the Regu- 
lators and Governor Tryon, in the spring of 1771. Some of the Reg- 
ulators were killed, and the whole dispersed. The Regulators* con- 
duct "was a rudis indigestaque moles,'' as Ovid says, about the be- 
ginning of creation; but the embryotic principles of the Revolution 
were in their temper and views. They wanted strength, consist- 
ency, a Congress and a Washington at their head. Tryon sent his 
officers and minions through the State, and imposed the oath of 
allegiance upon the people, even as far up as Mecklenburg county. 
In the year 1775, after our Revolution began, the principal char- 
acters of Mecklenburg county met on two sundry days, in Queen's 
Museum in Charlotte, to digest Articles for a State Constitution, in 
anticipation that the Province would proceed to do so. In this busi- 
ness the leading characters were, the Rev. Hezekiah James Balch, 
a graduate of Princeton College, an elegant scholar; Waightstill 
Avery, Esq., Attorney at Law; Hezekiah and John McKnitt Alexan- 
der, Esq's., Col. Thomas Polk, etc., etc. 

Many men, and young men, (myself one,) before magistrates, ab- 
jured allegiance to George III., or any other foreign power. At 
length, in the same year, 1775, I think, at least positively before 
July 4, 1776, the males generally of that county met on a certain 
day in Charlotte, and from the head of the Court-house stairs pro- 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


claimed Independence on English Oovernment, by their herald CoL 
Thomas Polk. I was present, and saw and heard it, and as a young 
man, and then a student in Queen's Museum, was an agent in these 
things. I did not then take and keep the dates, and cannot, as to 
date, be so particular as I could wish. Capt James Jack, then of 
Charlotte, but now of Elbert county, in Georgia, was sent with the 
account of these proceedings to Congress, then in Philadelphia—and 
brought back to the county, the thanks of Congress for their Zeal- 
and the advice of Congress to be a little more patient, until Congress 
should take the measures thought to be best 

I would suppose, sir, that some minutes of these things must 
be found among the records of the first Congress, that would per- 
fectly settle their dates. I am perfectly sure, being present at the 
whole of them, they were before our National Declaration of Inde- 

Hon. Sir, if the above few things can afford you any gratification, 
it will add to the happiness of your friend and humble servant 

Francis Cummins. 

Hon. Nathaniel Macon, 

(Joseph Oraham*8 Certificate.)* 

Vesuvius Furnace, 4th October, 1830. 

Dear Sir: — Agreeably to your request, I will give you the details 
'Of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence on the 20th of May, 
1775, as well as I can recollect after a lapse of fifty-five years. I 
was then a lad about half grown, was present on that occasion (a 
looker on). 

During the Winter and Spring preceding that event, several pop- 
ular meetings of the people were held in Charlotte; two of which I 
attended. — Papers were read, grievances stated, and public measures 
discussed. As printing was not then common in the South, the 
papers were mostly manuscript; one or more of which was from the 
pen of the Reverend Doctor Reese, (then of Mecklenburg), which 
met with general approbation, and copies of it circulated. It is to 
be regretted that those and other papers published at that period, 
and the journal of their proceedings, are lost. They would show 
much of the spirit and tone of thinking which prepared them for the 
measures they afterwards adopted. 

On the 20th of May, 1775, besides the two persons elected from 
each militia company, (usually called Committee-men), a much 
larger number of citizens attended in Charlotte than at any former 
meeting — perhaps half the men in the county. The news of the 
battle of Lexington, the 19th of April preceding, had arrived. There 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


appeared among the people mucli excitement The committee were 
organized in the Courtrhouse by appointing Abraham Alexander, 
Esq., Chairman, and John MciCnitt Alexander, Esq., Clerk or Sec- 
retary to the meeting. 

After reading a number of papers as usual, and much animated 
discussion, the question was taken and they resolved to declare 
themselves independent. One among other reasons offered, that the 
King or Ministry had, by proclamation or some edict, declared the 
Colonies out of the protection of the British Crown; they ought, 
therefore, to declare themselves out of his protection, and resolve on 
independence. That their proceedings might be in due form, a sub- 
committee, consisting of Dr. Ephraim Brevard, a Mr. Kennon, an 
attorney, and a third person, whom I do not recollect, were ap- 
pointed to draft their Declaration. They retired from the Court- 
house for some time; but the committee continued in session in it. 
One circumstance occurred I distinctly remember: A member of 
the committee, who had said but little before, addressed the Chair- 
man as follows: "If you resolve on independence, how shall we all 
be absolved from the obligations of the oath we took to be true to 
King George the III. about four years ago, after the Regulation 
battle, when we were sworn whole militia companies together. I 
should be glad to know how gentlemen can clear their consciences 
after taking that oath." This speech produced confusion. The 
Chairman could scarcely preserve order, so many wished to reply. 
There appeared great indignation and contempt at the speech of the 
member. Some said it was nonsense; others that allegiance and 
protection were reciprocal; when protection was withdrawn, alle- 
giance ceased; that the oath was only binding while the King pro- 
tected us in the enjoyment of our rights and liberties as they ex- 
isted at the time it was taken; which he had not done, but now de- 
clared us out of his protection; therefore was not binding. Any 
man who would interpret it otherwise, was a fool. By way of illus- 
tration, (pointing to a green tree near the Court-house), stated, if 
he was sworn to do anything as long as the leaves continued on 
that tree, it was so long binding; but when the leaves fell, he was 
discharged from its obligation. This was said to be certainly appli- 
cable in the present case. Out of respect for a worthy citizen, long 
since deceased, and his respectable connections, I forbear to mention 
names; for, though he was a friend to the cause, a suspicion rested 
on him in the public mind for some time after. 

The sub-committee appointed to draft the resolutions returned, 
and Dr. Ephraim Brevard read their report, as near as I can recol- 
lect, in the very words we have since seen them several times in 
print. It was unanimously adopted, and shortly after it was moved 


and seconded to have proclamation made and the people collected, 
that the proceedings be read at the Court-house door, In order that 
all might hear them. It was done, and they were received with 
enthusiasm. It was then proposed by some one aloud to give thret 
cheers and throw up their hats. It was Immediately adopted, and 
the hats thrown. Several of them lit on the Court-house roof. The 
owners had some difficulty to reclaim them. 

The foregoing Is all from personal knowledge. I understood af- 
terwards that Captain James Jack, then of Charlotte, undertook, on 
the request of the committee, to carry a copy of their proceedings to 
Congress, which then sat in Philadelphia; and on his way, at Salis- 
bury, the time of court, Mr. Kennon, who was one of the committee 
who assisted In drawing the Declaration, prevailed on Captain Jack 
to get his papers, and have them read publicly; which was done, 
and the proceedings met with general approbation. But two of the 
lawyers, John Dunn and a Mr. Booth, dissented, and asserted they 
were treasonable, and endeavored to have Captain Jack detained. 
He drew his pistols, and threatened to kill the first man who would 
interrupt him, and passed on. The news of this reached Charlotte 
in a short time after, and the executive of the committee, whom 
they had invested with suitable powers, ordered a party of ten or 
twelve armed horsemen to bring said lawyers from Salisbury; when 
they were brought, and the case investigated before the committee. 
Dunn, on giving security and making fair promises, was permitted 
to return, and Booth was sentenced to go to Camden, In South Caro- 
lina, out of the sphere of his influence. My brother George Graham 
and the late Col. John Carruth were of the party that went to Salis- 
bury; and it is distinctly remembered that when in Charlotte they 
came home at night. In order to provide for their trip to Camden; 
and that they and two others of the party took Booth to that place. 
This was the first military expedition from Mecklenburg in the Rev- 
olutionary war, and believed to be the first anywhere to the South. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. Graham. 
Dr. Jos. WKt. Alexander, Mecklenburg, N. Carolina. 

Certificate {Graham, Hutchison, Clark, Robinson.)* 

State op North Carolina, 
Mecklenburg County. 
At the request of Col. William Polk, of Raleigh, made to Major- 
General George Graham, soliciting him to procure all the Informa- 
tion that could be obtained at this late period, of the transactions 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


which took place in the county of Mecklenburg, in the year 1775, as 
it respected the people of that county having declared Independence; 
of the time when the Dieclaration was made; who were the princi- 
pal movers and leaders, and the members who composed the body 
of Patriots who made the Declaration, and signed the same. 

We, the undersigned citizens of the said county, and of the several 
ages set forth opposite to each of our names, do certify, and on our 
honor declare, that we were present in the town of Charlotte, in the 
said county of Mecklenburg, on the 19th day of May, 1775, when two 
persons elected from each Captain's Company in said county, ap- 
peared as delegates, to take into consideration the state of the coun- 
try, and to adopt such measures as to them seemed best, to secure 
their lives, liberty, and property, from the storm which was gather- 
ing, and had burst upon their fellow-citizens to the Eastward, by a 
British army, under the authority of the British King and Parlia- 

The order for the election of Delegates was given by Col. Thomas 
Polk, the commanding oflBcer of the militia of the county, with a re- 
quest that their powers should be ample, touching any measure that 
should be proposed. 

We do further certify and declare, that to the best of our recollec- 
tion and belief, the delegation was complete from every company, 
and that the meeting took place in the Court-house, about 12 o'clock 
on the said 19th day of May, 1775, when Abraham Alexander was 
chosen Chairman, and Dr. Ephraim Brevard Secretary. That the 
Delegates continued in session until in the night of that day; that 
on the 20th they again met, when a committee, under the direction 
of the Delegates, had formed several resolves, which were read, 
and which went to declare themselves, and the people of Mecklen- 
burg county. Free and Independent of the King and Parliament of 
Great Britain — and that, from that day thenceforth, all allegiance 
and political relation was absolved between the good people of 
Mecklenburg and the King of Great Britain; which Declaration was 
signed by every member of the Delegation, under the shouts and 
huzzas of a very large assembly of the people of the county, who 
had come to know the issue of the meeting. We further believe, 
that the Declaration of Independence was drawn up by the Secre- 
tary, Dr. Ephraim Brevard, and that it was conceived and brought 
about through the instrumentality and popularity of Col. Thomas 
Polk, Abraham Alexander, John McKnitt Alexander, Adam Alexan- 
der, Ephraim Brevard, John Phifer, and Hezekiah Alexander, with 
some others. 

We do further certify and declare, that in a few days after the 
Delegates adjourned. Captain James Jack, of the town of Char- 


lotte, was engaged to carry the resolves to the President of Con- 
gress, and to our Representatives— one copy for each; and that his 
expenses were paid by a voluntary subscription. And we do know 
that Captain Jack executed the trust, and returned with answers, 
both from the President and our Delegates in Congress, expressive 
of their entire approbation of the course that had been adopted, 
recommending a continuance in the same; and that the time would 
soon be, when the whole Continent would follow our example. 

We further certify and declare, that the measures which were 
adopted at the time before mentioned, had a general influence on the 
people of this county to unite them in the cause of liberty and the 
country, at that time; that the same unanimity and patriotism con- 
tinued unimpaired to the close of the war; and that the resolutions 
had considerable effect in harmonizing the people in two or three ad- 
Joining counties. 

That a committee of Safety for the county were elected, who 
were clothed with civil and military power, and under their au- 
thority several disaffected persons in Rowan, and Tryon (now Lin- 
coln county), were sent for, examined, and conveyed (after it was 
satisfactorily proven they were inimical) to Camden, in South 
Carolina, for safe keeping. 

We do further certify, that the acts passed by the committee of 
Safety, were received as the Civil Law of the land in many cases, 
and that Courts of Justice for the decision of controversies between 
the people were held, and we have no recollection that dissatisfac- 
tion existed in any instance with regard to the judgments of said 

We are not, at this late period, able to give the names of all the 
Delegation who formed the Declaration of Independence; but can 
safely declare as to the following persons being of the number, viz.: 
Thomas Polk, Abraham Alexander, John McKnitt Alexander, Adam 
Alexander, Ephraim Brevard, John Phifer, Hezekiah James Balch, 
Benjamin Patton, Hezekiah Alexander, Richard Barry, William 
Graham, Matthew M'Clure, Robert Irwin, Zachias Wilson, Neil Mor- 
rison, John Flennegen, John Queary, Ezra Alexander. 

In testimony of all and every part herein set forth, we have here- 
unto set our hands. 

Geo. Graham, aged 61, near 62. 
Wm. Hutchison, " 68. 
Jonas Clabk, " 61. 
Rob't Robinson, ** 68. 


(John Simeson to Col. William Polk,)* 

Providence, January 20, 1820. 

Deab Sib: — ^After, considerable delay, occasioned partly to obtain 
what information I could, in addition to my own knowledge of the 
facts in relation to our Declaration of Independence, and partly by 
a precarious, feeble old age, I now write to you in answer to yours 
of the 24th ult. 

I have conversed with many of my old friends and others, and 
all agree in the point, but few can state the particulars; for although 
our country is renowned for general intelligence, we have still 
some that don't read the public prints. You know, in the language 
of the day, every Province had its Ck)ngress, and Mecklenburg had 
its county Congress, as legally chosen as any other, and assumed an 
attitude until then without a precedent; but, alas those worthies who 
conceived and executed that bold measure, are no more; and one 
reason why so little new light can be thrown on an old truth, may 
be this — and I appeal to yourself for the correctness of the re- 
mark — we who are now called Revolutionary men, were then 
thoughtless, precipitate youths; we cared not who conceived the 
bold act, our business was to adopt and support it Yourself, sir, 
in your eighteenth year and on the spot, your worthy father, the 
most popular and influential character in the county, and yet you 
cannot state much from recollection. Your father, as commanding 
oflacer of the county, issued orders to the captains to appoint two 
men from each company to represent them in the committee. It 
was done. Neill Morrison, John Flennegen, from this company; 
Charles Alexander, John McKnitt Alexander, Hezekiah Alexander, 
Abraham Alexander, Esq., John Phifer, David Reese, Adam Alexan- 
der, Dickey Barry, John Queary, with others, whose names I cannot 
obtain. As to the names of those who drew up the Declaration, I 
am inclined to think Dr. Brevard was the principal, from his known 
talents in composition. It was, however, in substance and form, like 
that great national act agreed on thirteen months after. Ours was 
towards the close of May, 1775. In addition to what I have said, 
the same committee appointed three men to secure all the military 
stores for the country's use — Thomas Polk, John Phifer, and Joseph 
Kennedy. I was under arms near the head of the line, near Col. 
Polk, and heard him distinctly read a long string of Grievances, the 
Declaration and Military Order above. I likewise heard Col. Polk 
have two warm disputes with two men of the county, who said the 
measures were rash and unnecessary. He was applauded and they 
silenced. I was then in my 22d year, an enemy to usurpation and 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


tyranny of every kind, with a retentive memory* and fond of liberty, 
that had a doubt arisen in my mind that the act would be contro- 
verted, proof would not have been wanting; but I comfort myself 
that none but the self-important peace-party and blue-lights of the 
East, will have the assurance to oppose it any further. The biogra- 
pher of Patrick Henry (Mr. Wirt) says he first suggested Independ- 
ence in the Virginia Convention; but it is known they did not reduce 
it to action — so that it will pass for nothing. The Courts likewise 
acted independently. I myself heard a dispute take place on the 
bench, and an acting magistrate was actually taken and sent to 
prison by an order of the Chairman. 

Thus, sir, have I thrown together all that I can at this time. I 
am too blind to write fair, and too old to write much sense — but if 
my deposition before the Supreme Court of the United States would 
add more weight to a truth so well known here, it would be at the 
service of my fellow-citizens of the country and State generally. 

I am, sir, your friend and humble servant, 

John Simeson, Sen. 

P. S. — I will give you a short anecdote. An aged man near me, 
on being asked if he knew anything of this affair, replied, "Och, 
ayCy Tarn Polk declared Independence long before anybody else." 
This old man is 81. 

{Certificate of Isaac Alexander.)* 

I hereby certify that I was present in Charlotte on the 19th and 
20th days of May, 1775, when a regular deputation from all the 
Captains' companies of militia in the county of Mecklenburg, to- wit: 
Col. Thomas Polk, Adam Alexander, Lieut. Col. Abram Alexander, 
John McKnitt Alexander, Hezekiah Alexander, Ephraim Brevard, 
and a number of others, who met to consult and take measures for 
the peace and tranquility of the citizens of said county, and who 
appointed Abraham Alexander their Chairman, and Doctor Ephraim 
Brevard Secretary; who, after due consultation, declared themselves 
absolved from their allegiance to the King, of Great Britain, and 
drew up a Declaration of their Independence, which was unani- 
mously adopted; and employed Capt. James Jack to carry copies 
thereof to Congress, who accordingly went These are a part of the 
transactions that took place at that time, as far as my recollection 
serves me. 

Isaac Alexander. 

October 8, 1830. 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


(Certificate of Samuel Wilson.)* 

State of North Carolina, 
Mecklenburg County. 
I do hereby certify, that in May, 1775, a committee or delegation 
from the different militia companies in this county met in Charlotte; 
and after consulting together, they publicly declared their independ- 
ence on Great Britain, and on her Government This was done be- 
fore a large collection of people, who highly approved of it. I was 
then and there present, and heard it read from the Court-house 
<ioor. Certified by me. Samuel Wilson. 

(Certificate of John Davidson.)* 

Beaver Dam, October 5, 1830. 

Dear Sir: — I received your note of the 25th of last month, requir- 
ing information relative to the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. As I am, perhaps, the only person living, who was a 
member of that Convention, and being far advanced in years, and 
not having my mind frequently directed to that circumstance for 
some years, I can give you but a very succinct history of that trans- 
action. There were two men chosen from each captain's company, 
to me^t in Charlotte, to take the subject into consideration. John 
McKnitt Alexander and myself were chosen from one company; 
and many other members were there that I now recollect, whose 
names I deem unnecessary to mention. When the members met, 
and were perfectly organized for business, a motion was made to de- 
clare ourselves independent of the Crown of Great Britain, which 
was carried by a large majority. Dr. Ephraim Brevard was then 
appointed to give us a sketch of the Declaration of Independence, 
which he did. James Jack was appointed to take it on to the 
American Congress, then sitting in Philadelphia, with particular in- 
structions to deliver it to the North Carolina Delegation in Con- 
gress, (Hooper and Caswell). When Jack returned, he stated that 
the Declaration was presented to Congress, and the reply was, that 
they highly esteemed the patriotism of the citizens of Mecklenburg; 
but they thought the measure too premature. 

I am confident that the Declaration of Independence by the peo^ 
pie of Mecklenburg was made public at least twelve months before 
that of the Congress of the United States. 

I do certify that the foregoing statement, relative to the Meck- 
lenburg Independence is correct, and which I am willing to be 
qualified to, should it be required. Yours respectfully, 

Doct. J. M. Alexander. John Davidson. 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


Note. — Tbe following Is a copy of an original paper furnished by 
the writer of the foregoing certificate, from which It would seenit 
that, from the period of the Mecklenburg Declaration, every Indi- 
vidual friendly to the American cause was furnished by the Chair' 
man of tMt meeting, Abraham Alexander, with testimonials of the 
character he had assumed; and in this point of view the paper af- 
fords strong collateral testimony of the correctness of many of 
the foregoing certificates. 


Meoklenbubo County, 
NoYumber 28, 1775. 
These may certify to all whom may concern, that the bearer 
hereof, William Henderson, is allowed here to be a true friend to 
liberty, and signed the Association. 
Certified by Abb'm Alexandeb, 

Chairman of the Committee of P. S. 

(Letter From J. G. M. Ramsey,)* 

Mecklenburg, T. Oct, 1, 1830. 
Dear Sib: — Yours of 21st ultimo was duly received. In answer I 
have only to say, that little is in my possession on the subject 
alluded to which you have not already seen. Subjoined are the cer- 
tificates of two gentlemen of this county, whose respectability and 
veracity are attested by their acquaintances here, as well as by the 
accompanying testimonials of the magistrates in whose neighbor- 
hood they reside. With this you will also receive extracts from 
letters on the same subject from gentlemen well known to you, and 
to the country at large. 

I am, very respectfully yours, etc., 

J. G. M. Ramsey. 

{Certificate of James Johnson.)* 
I, James Johnson, now of Knox county, Tennessee, but formerly 
of Mecklenburg county. North Carolina, do hereby certify, that to 
the best of my recollection, in the month of May, 1775, there were 
several meetings in Charlotte concerning the impending war. Being 
young, I was not called on to take an active part in the same; but 
one thing I do positively remember, that she. (Mecklenburg county) 
did meet and hold a Convention, declared independence, and sent a 
man to Philadelphia with the proceedings. And I do further cer- 
tify, that I am well acquainted with several of the men who formed 
or constituted said Convention, viz.: John McKnitt Alexander, Hez- 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 


ekiah Alexander, Abraham Alexander, Adam Alexander, Robert 
Irwin, Neill Morrison, John Flennegen, John Queary. 
Certified by me this 11th day of October, 1827. 

James Johnson, 
In my seventy-third year. 

(Certificate of Elijah Johnson and James Wilhite,)* 
We, Elijah Johnson and James Wilhite, acting Justices of the 
Peace for the county of Knox, do certify, that we have been a long 
time well acquainted with Samuel Montgomery and James Johnson, 
both residents of Knox county; and that they are entitled to full 
credit, and any statement they may make to implicit confidence. 
Given under our hands and seals this 4th day of October, 1830. 

E3LIJAH Johnson, iSeal.l 
James Wilhite, ISeal.l 
Justices of the Peace for Knox County. 
Note. — Mr. Montgomery's certificate does not purport to state 
the facts as having come under his own personal observation. It 
is therefore omitted in this publication. 

Instructions Given to Mecklenburg Representatives to the Provin- 
cial Congress, September 1, 1776.** 

1. You are instructed to vote that the late province of North Car- 
olina is and of right ought to be, a free and independent State, in- 
vested with all the power of Legislation, capable of making Laws 
to regulate all its internal policy, subject only in its external con- 
nections and foreign commerce, to a negative of a continental 

2. You are instructed to vote for the Execution of a civil Govern- 
ment under the authority of the People for the future security of 
all the Rights, Privileges and Prerogatives of the State, and the 
private, natural and unalienable Rights of the constituting members 
thereof, either as Men or Christians. If this should not be confirmed 
in Congress or Convention — protest 

3. You are instructed to vote that an equal Representation be es- 
tablished, and that the qualifications required to enable any person 
or persons to have a voice in Legislation, may not be secured too 
high, but that every Freeman who shall be called upon to support 
Government either in person or property, may be admitted thereto. 
If this should not be confirmed, protest and remonstrate. 

♦State Pamphlet, 1831. 

♦♦Wheeler's History, page 260. Date according to Governor 


4. You are instructed to vote that Legislation be not a divided 
right, and that no man, or body of men be invested with a negative 
on the voice of the People duly collected, and that no honors or dig- 
nities be conferred, for life, or made hereditary, on any person or 
persons, either legislative or executive. If this should not be con- 
firmed — protest and remonstrate. 

5. You are instructed to vote that all and every person or per- 
sons, seized or possessed of any estate, real or personal, agreeable 
to the last establishment, be confirmed in their seizure and pos- 
session, to all intents and purposes in law, who have not forfeited 
their right to the protection of the State by their criminal practices 
towards the same. If this should not be confirmed — protest. 

6. You are instructed to vote that Deputies to represent this State 
in a Continental Congress be appointed in and by the supreme Leg- 
islative body of the State, the form of nomination to be submitted 
to, if free, and also that all officers the influence of whose office is 
equally to extend to every part of the State, be appointed in the 
same manner and form — likewise give your consent to the establish- 
ing the old political divisions, If it should be voted in convention, 
or to new ones if similar. On such establishments taking place you 
are instructed to vote, in the general, ihat all officers, who are to 
exercise their authority in any of the said districts, be recommended 
to the trust only by the freemen of said division — to be subject, 
however, to the general laws and regulations of the State. If this 
should not be substantially confirmed — protest 

7. You are instructed to move and insist that the people you im- 
mediately represent be acknowledged to be a distinct county of this 
State as formerly of the late province, with the additional privilege 
of annually electing in their own officers both civil and military, 
together with the election of Clerks and Sheriffs, by the freemen 
of the same. The choice to be confirmed by sovereign authority of 
the State, and the officers so invested to be under the jurisdiction 
of the State and liable to its cognizance and infiictions, in case of 
malpractice. If this should not be confirmed, protest and remon- 

8. You are instructed to vote that no chief justice, no secretary 
of State, no auditor-general, no surveyor-general, no practicing law- 
yer, no clerk of any court of record, no sheriff, and no person hold- 
ing a military office in this State, shall be a representative of the 
people in Congress or Convention. If this should not be confirmed — 
contend for it. 

9. You are instructed to vote that all claims against the public, 
except such as accrue upon attendance of Congress or Convention, 
be first submitted to the inspection of a committee of nine or more 


men, inhabitants of the county where said claimant is a resident, 
and without the approbation of said committee, it shall not be ac- 
cepted by the public, for which purpose you are to move and insist 
that a law be enacted to impower the freemen of each county to 
choose a committee of not less than nine men, of whom none are to 
be military officers. If this should not be confirmed — ^protest and 

10. You are instructed to refuse to enter into any combinations 
of secrecy as members of Congress or Convention, and also to refuse 
to subscribe any ensnaring jests binding you to an unlimited sub- 
jection to the determination of Congress or Convention. 

11. You are instructed to move and insist that the public accounts 
fairly stated shall be regularly kept in proper books, open to the in- 
spection of all persons whom it may concern. If this should not be 
confirmed — contend for it. 

12. You are instructed to move and insist that the power of Coun- 
ty Courts be much more extensive than under the former constitu- 
tion, both with respect to matters of property and breaches of the 
peace. If not confirmed — contend for it. 

13. You are instructed to assent and consent to the establishment 
of the .Christian Religion as contained in the scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments, and more briefiy comprised in the 39 Articles 
of the Church of England, excluding the 37th Article, together with 
all the Articles excepted and not to be imposed on dissenters by the 
act of toleration; and clearly held forth in the confession of faith 
compiled by the assembly of divines at Westminster, to be the Reli- 
gion of the State*, to the utter exclusion forever of all and every 
other (falsely so called) Religion, whether Pagan or Papal, and 
that the full, free and peaceable enjoyment thereof be secured to 
all and every constituent member of the State as their unalienable 
right as Freemen, without the imposition of rites and ceremonies, 
whether claiming civil or ecclesiastical power for their source, and 
that a confession and profession of the Religion so established shall 
be necessary in qualifying any person for public trust in the State. 
If this should not be confirmed — protest and remonstrate. 

14. You are instructed to oppose to the utmost any particular 
church or set of clergymen being invested with power to decree 
rites and ceremonies and to decide in controversies of faith to be 
submitted to under the influence of penal laws — ^you are also to op- 
pose the establishment of any mode of worship to be supported to 
the opposition of the rights of conscience, together with the de- 
struction of private property. You are to understand that under 
modes of worship are comprehended the different forms of swear- 
ing by law required. You are moreover to oppose the establishing 


an ecclesiastical supremacy in the sovereign authority of the State. 
You are to oppose the toleration of the popish idolatrous worship. 
If this should not be confirmed — protest and remonstrate. 

15. You are instructed to move and insist that not less than 
four-fifths of the body of which you are members, shall, in voting, 
be deemed a majority. If this should not be confirmed — contend 
for it. 

16. You are instructed to give your voices to and for every motion 
and bill made or brought into the Congress or Convention, where 
they appear to be for public utility and in no ways repugnant to 
the above instructions. 

17. Gentlemen, the foregoing instructions, you are not only to 
look on as instructions, but as charges, to which you are desired to 
take special heed as the general rule of your conduct as our Repre- 
sentatives, and we expect you will exert yourselves to the utmost 
of your ability to obtain the purposes given you in charge, and 
wherein you fail either in obtaining or opposing, you are hereby 
ordered to enter your protest against the vote of the Congress or 
Convention as is pointed out to you in the above instructions. 


As some writers were confused by the difference between 
the Resolves and the Declaration, so they were also by three 
different alleged copies of the latter. The first, or Martin 
copy, is given in the ninth chapter of the first volume, and 
was secured by Judge Martin, as he says, in Western North 
Carolina prior to i8oo. As it would have been virtually im- 
possible for an incorrect copy to have co-existed with the 
original, which was destroyed in i8oo, this is obviously a 
genuine reproduction. 

Following is the Davie copy, which was written from 
memory by John McKnitt Alexander soon after the burning 
of his house and the official papers : 

1st. Resolved, That whosoever directly or indirectly abbetted or 
in any way or form countenanced the unchartered and dangerous 
invasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy to 
this country, to America, and to the inherent and inalienable rights 
of man. 

2d. Resolved, That we, the citi> ens of Mecklenburg county, do 
hereby dissolve the political band' which have connected us to the 


^e^^u, ^>^5i«-»-^ <-V #♦». 


o/W- /^^V^2-^^^^U^^«-i,^_^ 

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'r i 



mother country, and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance 
to the British Grown, and abjure all political connection, contract 
or association, with that nation who have wantonly trampled on 
our rights and liberties, and inhumanly shed the blood of Ameri- 
can patriots at Lexington. 

3d. Resolvedj That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and in- 
pendent people; are and of right ought to be a sovereign and self- 
governing association, under the control of no other power but that 
of our God and the general government of the Congress; to the 
maintenance of which independence, we solemnly pledge to each 
other our mutual co-operation, our lives, our fortunes, and our most 
sacred honour. 

4th. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and 
control of no law or legal oflBcer, civil or military, within this coun- 
ty, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life, all, each and 
every of our former laws, wherein, nevertheless, the crown of Great 
Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, immu- 
nities, or authority therein. 

5th. Resolved, That It is further decreed, that all, each and every 
military officer in this county is hereby reinstated in his former 
command and authority, he acting conformably to these regulations. 
And that every member present of this delegation, shall henceforth 
be a civil officer, viz: a Justice of the Peace, in the character of a 
"Committeeman,'' to issue process, hear and determine all matters of 
controversy according to said adopted laws, and to preserve peace, 
union and harmony in said county; and to use every exertion to 
spread the love of country and the fire of freedom throughout Amer- 
ica, until a more general and organized government be established 
in this province. 

The Garden copy, which is almost exactly similar to the 
Martin copy, was published in Garden's Anecdotes of the 
Revolution, in 1828, one year before the publication of Mar- 
tin's history. Alexander Garden acknowledges as his source 
of information Dr. William Read, w'ho attended Dr. 
Ephraim Brevard in his last illness in 1777, at the home of 
John McKnitt Alexander. Both the Garden and Martin 
copies are undoubtedly genuine reproductions of the origi- 
nal; the first was published in 1828 and the other in 1829, 
and Garden and Martin both stated that they did not know 
of the existence of the other copy until both had appeared in 
print. The Garden copy is as follows : 


Resolved, That whoever directly or indirectly abets, or In any 
way, form, or manner, countenances the invasion of our rights, as 
attempted by the Parliament of Great Britain, is an enemy to his 
country, to America, and to the Rights of Man. 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg county, do hereby 
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us with the 
Mother Country, and absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the 
British Crown, abjuring all political connection with a nation that 
has wantonly trampled on our right and liberties, and inhumanly 
shed the blood of Americans at Lexington. 

Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and inde- 
pendent people, that we are and of right ought to be a sovereign and 
self-governing people, under the power of God and the General Con- 
gress, to the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge 
to each other our mutual co-operation — our lives — our fortunes — and 
our sacred honours. 

Resolved, That we do hereby ordain and adopt, as rules of con- 
duct, all and each of our former laws, and the Crown of Great 
Britain cannot be considered, hereafter, as holding any rights, priv- 
ileges or immunities among us. i 

Resolved, That all officers, both civil and military, in this County, 
be entitled to exercise the same powers and authorities as hereto- 
fore — that every member of this delegation shall henceforth be a 
civil officer, and exercise the powers of a Justice of the Peace, issue 
process, hear and determine controversies, according to law, pre- 
serve peace, union and harmony in the county, and use every exer- 
tion to spread the love of liberty and of country, until a more gen- 
eral and better organized system of govemmnet be established. 

Resolved, That a copy of these Resolutions be transmitted by ex- 
press to the President of the Continental Congress, assembled at 
Philadelphia, to be laid before that body. 

Resolves of May 31, 1775, Copied from the South Carolina Gazette 
and Country Journal of June 13, 1775, No, 498— Printed at 
Charleston hy Charles Crouch, on the Bay, Comer of Elliott 

Charlotte-town, Mecklenburg County, May 31, 1775. 

This day the Committee of this county met, and passed the fol- 
lowing Resolves: 

Whereas, By an Address presented to His Majesty by both Houses 
of Parliament, in February last, the American colonies are declared 

♦Copies of this paper are now on file in Charleston, S. C, and 
London, England. 


to be in a state of actual rebellion, we conceive, that all laws and 
commissions confirmed by, or derived from the authority of the 
King or Parliament, are annulled and vacated, and the former civil 
constitution of these colonies, for the present, wholly suspended. 
To provide, in some degree, for the exigencies of this county, in the 
present alarming period, we deem it proper and necessary to pass 
the following Resolves, viz.: 

I. That all commissions, civil and military, heretofore granted 
by the Crown, to be exercised in these colonies, are null and void, 
and the constitution of each particular colony wholly suspended. 

II. That the Provincial Congress of each province, under the 
direction of the great Continental Congress, is invested with all 
legislative and executive powers within their respective provinces, 
and that no other legislative or executive power, does, or can exist, 
at this time, in any of these colonies. 

III. As all former laws are now suspended in this province, and 
the Congress have not yet provided others, we judge it necessary, 
for the better preservation of good order, to form certain rules and 
regulations for the internal government of this county, until laws 
shall be provided for us by the Congress. 

IV. That the inhabitants of this county do meet on a certain day 
appointed by this Committee, and having formed themselves into 
nine companies (to- wit), eight in the county, and one in the town 
of Charlotte, do chuse a Colonel and other military officers, who 
shall hold and exercise their several powers by virtue of this choice, 
and independent of the Crown of Great Britain, and former consti- 
tution of this province. 

V. That for the better preservation of the peace and administra- 
tion of justice, each of those companies do chuse from their own 
body, two discreet freeholders, who shall be empowered, each by 
himself and singly, to decide and determine all matters of contro- 
versy, arising within said company, under the sum of twenty shil- 
lings; and jointly and together, all controversies under the sum of 
forty shillings; yet so as that their decisions may admit of appeal 
to the Convention of the Select-Men of the county; and also that 
any one of these men shall have power to examine and commit to 
confinement persons accused of petit larceny. 

VI. That those two Select-Men, thus chosen, do jointly and to- 
gether chuse from the body of their particular company, two persons 
properly qualified to act as Constables, who may assist them in the 
execution of their office. 

VII. That upon the complaint of any persons to either of these 
Select-Men, he do issue his warrant, directed to the Constable, com- 


manding him to bring the aggressor before him or them, to answer 
said complaint. 

VIII. That these eighteen Select-Men, thus appointed, do meet 
every third Thursday in January, April, July, and October, at the 
Court-House, in Charlotte, to hear and determine all matters of con- 
troversy, for sums exceeding forty shillings, also appeals; and in 
cases of felony, to commit the person or persons convicted thereof 
to close confinement, until the Provincial Congress shall provide 
and establish laws and modes of proceeding in all such cases. 

IX. That these eighteen Select-Men, thus convened, do chuse a 
Clerk to record the transactions of said Convention, and that said 
Clerk, upon the application of any person or persons aggrieved, do 
issue his warrant to one of the Constables of the company to which 
the offender belongs, directing said Constable to summons and warn 
said offender to appear before the Convention, at their next meeting, 
to answer the aforesaid complaint. 

X. That any person making complaint upon oath, to the Clerk, 
or any member of the Convention, that he has reason to suspect, 
that any person or persons indebted to him, in a sum above forty 
shillings, intend clandestinely to withdraw from the county, without 
paying such debt, the Clerk or such member shall issue his warrant 
to the Constable, commanding him to take said person or persons 
Into safe custody, until the next sitting of the Convention. 

XI. That when a debtor for a sum below forty shillings shall 
abscond and leave the county, the warrant granted as aforesaid, 
shall extend to any goods or chattels of said debtor, as may be 
found, and such goods or chattels be seized and held in custody by 
the Constable, for the space of thirty days; in which time, if the 
debtor fail to return and discharge the debt, the Constable shall 
return the warrant to one of the Select-Men of the company, where 
the goods are found, who shall issue orders to the Constable to sell 
such a part of said goods as shall amount to the sum due; That 
when the debt exceeds forty shillings, the return shall be made to 
the Convention, who shall issue orders for sale. 

XII. That all receivers and collectors of quit-rents, public and 
county taxes, do pay the same into the hands of the chairman of 
this Committee, to be by them disbursed as the public exigencies 
may require; and that such receivers and collectors proceed no 
further in their office, until they be approved of by, and have given 
to, this Committee, good and sufficient security, for a faithful return 
of such monies when collected. 

XIII. That the Committee be accountable to the county for the 
application of all monies received from such public officers. 

XIV. That all these officers hold their commissions during the 
pleasure of their several constituents. 


XV. That this committee will sustain all damages that ever here- 
after may accrue to all or any of these oflacers thus appointed, and 
thus acting, on account of their obedience and conformity to these 

XVI. That whatever person shall hereafter receive a commis- 
sion from the Crown, or attempt to exercise any such commission 
heretofore received, shall be deemed an enemy to his country, and 
upon information being being made to the Captain of the company 
in which he resides, the said company shall cause him to be appre- 
hended, and conveyed before the two Select-Men of the said com- 
pany, who, upon proof of the fact, shall commit him, the said 
offender, to safe custody, until the next sitting of the Committee, 
who shall deal with him as prudence may direct. 

XVII. That any person refusing to yield obedience to the above 
Resolves, shall be considered equally criminal, and liable to the 
same punishment, as the ofl^enders above last mentioned. 

XVIII. That these Resolves be in full force and virtue, until 
instructions from the Provincial Congress, regulating the jurispru- 
dence of the province, shall provide otherwise, or the legislative 
body of Great Britain, resigns its unjust and arbitrary pretentions, 
with respect to America. 

XIX. That the eight militia companies in the county, provide 
themselves with proper arms and accoutrements, and hold them- 
selves in readiness to execute the commands and directions of the 
General Congress of this province and this Committee. 

XX. That the Committee appoint Colonel Thomas Polk, and Doc- 
tor Joseph Kenedy, to purchase 300 lb. of powder, 600 lb. of lead, 
1,000 flints, for the use of the militia of this county, and deposit 
the same in such place as the Committee may hereafter direct. 

Signed by order of the Committee. 

Eph. Bbevabd, 
Clerk of the Committee. 


The following letters were secured many years ago 
through the kindness of William L. Force, of Washington, 
D. C, and are here published for the first time.* John 
Vaughn, whose inquiry elicited the valuable reply from 
Col. Force, was born in England in 1756, was a brother of 

♦Preserved in manuscript by Lyman J. Draper. 


Benjamin Vaughn, the friend and cnrresi)ondent of Frank- 
lin, came to America in 1776, and became acquainted with 
Washington, Jeflferson, Franklin, Adams and others; was 
president of the American Pliilosophical Society and a man 
of extensive learning and strong character, and died in Phil- 
adelphia in 1 841. 

Colonel Peter Force, historian, was born at Passaic Falls, 
New Jersey, November 26, 1790. His father, William 
Force, was a soldier in the Revolution, and moved to New 
York city in 1793, and his son there learned the printer's 
trade and was president of the Typographical Society in 
1812. In 1815, he moved to Washington City, where he 
published an annual called the National Calendar, from 
1820 to 1836; in 1823, he established the National Journal 
in support of Adams for the presidency; was councilman 
and alderman; mayor from 1836 to 1840; rose to the rank 
of major-general of militia; and was president of the Na- 
tional Institute. He published several volumes of import- 
ance, the greatest of them being the American Archives, in 
nine volumes. Gen. Force died in Washington January 23, 
1868, leaving two sons, William L. Force and Manning F. 
Force, the latter having been a general in the Civil War, 
and afterwards becoming a judge in Ohio. 

In reading these letters, it is to be remembered that they 
were written in 1841, and it is obvious that neither of the 
writers had read even all the literature on the subject which 
was then obtainable. Col. Force recognizes the overwhelm- 
ing evidence in support of the authenticity of the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration, and for want of a better explanation of 
the difference between the Declaration and the Resolves, 
endeavors as others have done, to account for it on the as- 
sumption that there was but one meeting of the committee 
and that one or the other of the two documents was incor- 
rect. Not until the publication of the Colonial Records, 
nearly half a century later, w^as it known that these meetings 
were frequent not only in Mecklenburg, but in other coun- 
ties in North Carolina, and then it was made known that 


the Resolves were adopted at a meeting of the Mecklenburg 
Committee held eleven days after the convention, and that 
they were amended and added to at similar meetings con- 
vened subsequently. 

(From John Vaughn to Col. Force.) 

Philadelphia, Nov. 26, 1841. 
Peter Force, Esq., Washington: 

Dr. Sir: — Mr. Jefferson has been accused of borrowing from the 
Mecklenburg, N. C, Declaration sundry expressions which he made 
use of in his draught of the Declaration of Independence, and the 
question was discussed at a meeting of our Historical Society, when 
a paragraph was produced from a newspaper stating that you had 
found a North Carolina paper in which the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion was published soon after the resolutions were adopted, which 
did not contain the expressions said to be borrowed by Mr. Jeffer- 
son. Knowing your correctness, they were desirous of learning 
whether you had authorized such information. Oblige me by in- 
forming me when the Mecklenburg Declaration was made, and 
what was the date of the newspaper and its title, and whether the 
expressions alluded to were not found in the original Declaration, 
and in the published one, and, if not, when probably they were in- 
troduced in future publications and at what time. 

It is desirable to put this question to rights whilst it can be done, 
and no evidence can be more conclusive than yours. 
I remain yours truly, 

Jno. Vaughn. 

(From Col. Force to John Vaughn.) 

Washington, Dec. 11, 1841. 
Dear Sir: — I avail myself of the earliest opportunity in my power 
to reply to your letter of the 26th of November. The Mecklenburg 
Resolutions, commonly called "The Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde- 
pendence," were adopted in May, 1775. Thefe are two papers which 
are said to be copies of these Resolutions, one is in manuscript (A), 
where the Resolutions are dated May 20th; the other is printed (B), 
where they are dated May 31st* of that year. You ask if certain 
expressions are not found in the original Declaration, and in the 
published one. By "the original Declaration" I suppose you mean 

♦A, was the Declaration; B, was the Resolves. — D. A. T. 


the manuscript copy; for of the existence of the original at this time 
nothing is known. We are told that the original book, that is, the 
book in which the Resolutions were originally entered, was burned 
in April, 1800. It is not pretended that the manuscript now in the 
executive office at Raleigh is the original Declaration— there it pur- 
ports to be nothing more than a mere copy, and is incorporated into 
a notice of the transactions of that period, drawn up some time 
afterwards, apparently for publication. When it was written is not 
stated, but it bears evidence on the face of it that it was written 
after the 4th of July, 1776.* It was first published in the Raleigh 
Register of April 30, 1819. "The expressions Mr. Jefferson has been 
accused of borrowing for his draft of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence," are found in this copy. 

That the Resolutions were published soon after its date. Governor 
Martin's Proclamation of the 8th of August, 1775, furnishes evidence. 
The Governor says: "And whereas, I have also seen a most infa- 
mous publication in the Cape Fear Mercury^ importing to be the 
Resolves of a set of people styling themselves a committee for the 
county of Mecklenburg, most traitorlously declaring the entire dis- 
solution of the Laws, Government and Constitution of their county, 
and setting up a system of Rule and Regulation repugnant to the 
Laws, and subversive of His Majesty's Government." After a care- 
ful research and extensive inquiry, I have not been so fortunate as 
to find a copy of this newspaper, and, of course, have never said 
that I had found a North Carolina newspaper in which the Mecklen- 
burg Declaration was published soon after the Resolutions were 

But, I have two of the early printed copies of the Mecklenburg 
Resolutions. One is in the New York Journal of the 29th of June, 
the other in the Massachusetts 8py of the 12th of July, 1775. The 
Resolutions, then dated May 31st, do not contain the expressions 
you refer to. They were printed in New York more than a year be- 
fore the Declaration of Independence, in less than a month after 
their date, within a week of the time when the messenger by 
whom they were transmitted to the Continental Congress was in 
Philadelphia, and at the very time when the publication of a forged 
or false copy must have been followed by instant detection and ex- 
posure. They were then received as genuine, and I believe their 
authority has not, to this day, been disputed. With regard to the 
date, it is possible that in transcribing or printing a figure (3) may 
have been substituted* for a (2), and then made May 31st instead 

♦The copy referred to was the Davie copy, made in 1800. — D. A. T. 


of May 21st. This is altogether possible;* but it does not change 
the character or affect the genuineness of the paper. It is proper to 
call your attention to the fact that though the printed copy con- 
tains the Resolutions which form the Declaration of Independence, 
it does not give all the Resolves adopted at the same time by the 
Committee. This remark applies also to the manuscript copy; but 
there is this difference between the two copies — the writer of the 
manuscript takes no notice of any omitted resolutions; he gives five 
(numbering the Preamble as one of them), as all that were "unani- 
mously ordained," leaving every one to believe, and such has been 
the universal belief, that he had given the whole. The printed copy 
of the 29th of June, after the Preamble and four Resolutions, gives 
the substance of the succeeding eleven, and then the sixteenth Re- 
solve at length.* The eleven omitted Resolutions relate exclusively 
to the county of Mecklenburg, or to the province of North Carolina, 
and from the "System of Rule and Regulation'' for the temporary 
government of that county or the province mentioned in Gov. Mar- 
tin's Proclamation. As these eleven Resolutions apply only to the 
local affairs of the county or province, we can readily account for 
the omission by a printer in New York; but it is not easy to imag- 
ine why the same Resolutions (that is, the Resolutions containing 
the Rules and Regulations), were omitted by the writer of the man- 
uscript, if they were in his possession when he drew up his narra- 
tive, unless we suppose he intended to cover the omission by his 5th 

The two copies differ very widely in another respect. The manu- 
script does not "declare the entire dissolution of the Laws, Govern- 
ment and Constitution of this country." It applies to Mecklenburi; 
county alone; that county only is declared independent — "a sover- 
eign and self-governing association" by itself, separated alike from 
the Crown and the province, and leaving North Carolina and all the 

♦The subsequent discovery of the full series of resolves in the 
South Carolina Gazette and Country Journal confirmed the correct- 
ness of the date (May 31), when they were adopted. For reasons 
unknown, the Declaration of May 20th was not submitteji for pub- 
lication.— D. A. T. 

♦The entire set of Resolves of the 31st of May had not at this 
period been discovered, and hence Col. Force was not aware that 
they really numbered twenty beside the Preamble. It is also to be 
borne in mind that he was endeavoring to construe the Resolves as 
the Declaration, when in fact they were merely supplementary. — 
D. A. T. 


Other colonies in subjection to the Crown. The Declaration in the 
printed copy is of an entirely different character. It does declare 
"the entire dissolution" in that the whole country is declared inde- 
pendent.* The Declaration is not for one county of one colony; It 
is for all the colonies. 

It is a Declaration of the independence of the United ColonieB, 
and made by men who saw far into the future — whose patriotism 
was not limited by the boundaries of their own county. At that 
early day the men of Mecklenburg marked out the true course to be 
pursued by the whole continent for a redress of grievances; this 
was afterwards found to be the only course. When they took their 
ground they stood alone — their own province of North Carolina 
did not join them. They did not ask their fellow subjects to unite 
with them in so daring an enterprise without first encountering 
the peril themselves. They did not wait for others to take the first 
step — they did not stand at ease until the whole were prepared to 
advance in line; but they boldly and fearlessly marched out to the 
front, inviting by their example all the rest to follow. These men 
were the first to declare that the authority of the King and Parlia- 
ment over "their colonies" was annulled and vacated. They were the 
first to declare "that the Provincial Congress of each province, un- 
der the direction of the great Continental Congress, is invested 
with all legislative and executive power, within their respective 
provinces, and that no other legislative or executive power does, or 
can at this time exist in any of these colonies." They were the first 
to incur the responsibility, whatever it might be, of making such a 
declaration, and publishing it to the worla. 

The Resolutoins were immediately forwarded by an express to the 
Continental Congress. I need not ask which of the two Declara- 
tions, the "manuscript" or the "printed" would be the most appropri- 
ate for such a special communication — that which related to the 
separation of a single county from a province, then represented by 
three delegates in that body; or that which in substance and in 
terms was a full and complete Declaration of Independence of all 
the colonies? With one, the Congress had nothing to do. while 
North Carolina was firm (and North Carolina was never otherwise 
than firm) in her support of the Continental measures. The other 
presented for consideration a question which no other body of men 
on the continent was competent to decide. What was the result of 

♦The convention of May 20th declared the independence of *'the 
citizens of Mecklenburg county," while the Resolves of May 31st 
"conceive" the suspension of "the former civil constitution of these 
colonies.'' — D. A. T. 


the mission? The Congress, as will he seen hy their Declaration 
of the 6th of July,* believed it inexpedient at the time to declare in- 
dependence. The people of Mecklenburg acquiesced in this decision, 
and fell back into line; their delegates in the next Provincial Con- 
gress, held at Hillsboro, in August, 1775, united with the other 
members in all their proceedings, and we find subscribed to the 
"Test," adopted and signed on the 23d of August, which begins with 
these words: "We, the subscribers, professing our allegiance to the 
King, and acknowledging the constitutional executive power of gov- 
ernment" — the names of Thomas Polk, John McKnitt Alexander, 
J6hn Phifer, Waightstill Avery, with one hundred and eighty 
others, members of that Congress. 

It has been suggested that there were two sets of Resolves adopted 
— two separate and distinct Declarations made on two different 
days — one by a convention, another by a committee of Mecklenburg 
county, and that the manuscript copy is the record of the proceed- 
ings of one of these meetings, the printed copy of the other meet- 
ing. But this is a mere assumption not supported by a particle of 
evidence. The writer of the manuscript mentions but one. None of 
the survivors in 1830 of those who were inhabitants of Mecklen- 
burg county in May, 1775, and present when the resolutions were 
adopted, speak of two Declarations.** But one messenger was sent 
by the Committee to the Continental Congress with "The Declara- 
tion." Gov. Martin alluded to one only, which had then been 
printed, and we find one printed six weeks before the date of his 
Proclamation corresponding so exactly with his description of it as 
to leave no room for doubt that it is the identical paper he de- 
nounces as "the Resolves of a set of people styling themselves a 
committee for the county of Mecklenburg, declaring the entire disso- 
lution of the Laws, Government and Constitution of this country, 
and setting up a system of Rule and Regulation," etc. 

In answering your letter, my dear sir, I have endeavoured to be 
as brief as possible to notice such points only as were necessary, 
and to avoid everything that had not a direct bearing upon your 
questions; yet I am conscious that I have extended mine to an un- 
reasonable length. But upon looking it over, I see nothing that 

*6th of July, 1775.— D. A. T. 

**They were called upon to certify specifically that the Declara- 
tion was made and they did so. There was only one Declaration, and 
there was no occasion for remarks about the Resolves of May 31. 
Meetings were held at intervals during the entire year, but were not 
mentioned in a discussion wholly concerned with the Convention 
of May 20.— D. A. T. 


strikes me as proper to be omitted, so I send it all, trasting to your 
patience and good nature to find a suitable excuse for me. If I 
have succeeded in establishing a single truth, or in removing a sin- 
gle doubt— if I have cleared away one of the many clouds of error, 
that for twenty years have thrown so much darkness around this 
brilliant star in our history, I shall be entirely satisfied. For the 
convenience, I add copies of the two papers marked A and B, I have 
referred to so often. 

Very respectfully, etc., 

[Signed.] Peteb Force. 

John Vaughn^ Esq., Philadelphia. 


David Lowry Swrain, son of. George Swain, was born 
near Asheville, Buncombe county, North Carolina, January 
4, 1801. He was educated in AshevillCj attended the State 
University for a short while, studied law under the direction 
of Judge John L. Taylor in Raleigh, served as member of 
the General Assembly, Solicitor of the Edenton district, 
member of the State Board of Internal Improvements, 
trustee of the University, Judge of the Superior Court, and 
was elected Governor in 1832, being then only thirty-one 
years of age. He was elected president of the University in 
1835, and served in that capacity until his death, August 
2y, 1868. He organized the historical society of the Uni- 
versity in 1844, and in 1855, he was appointed State Histori- 
cal Agent. In this position he did work of great and lasting 
value in securing and preserving documents of importance. 
His generosity in assisting Bancroft, Lossing, Hawks, 
Wheeler, Randall and other historians without reward in 
any form, attests the sterling character of the man. 

Governor Swain probably devoted more time to the study 
of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence and the 
involved questions than did any other man. He examined 
carefully all the available testimony in a spirit in which even 
his unswerving patriotism and love for his native State 
could not influence him in his search for truth. Of the 
authority of the Declaration, he had no doubts, but he 
could not satisfy himself as to the details. It matters not to 


', iZ^TTrr/ ■^ " V r'v>?"jt>"gyYg 



US to-day whether the Declaration was made May 20 or 
May 31, but to Governor Swain, it was a matter of import- 
ance to accurately and positively determine every item of 
historical importance. No one has ever disputed the account 
of the resolves of May 31, which were published at the time, 
and when the discussion arose, the forthcoming evidence 
proved the facts of the convention of May 20. Then some 
writers undertook to reconcile the two or prove there was 
but one, but there were the two sets of resolutions and all 
finally came to the same conclusion as did Governor Swain, 
as is shown in the following correspondence. 

(Gov, Swain to Hon. Benson J. Lossing.)* 

Chapel Hill, Dec. 20, 1851. 

My Deab Sib: — ^Your letter of the 14tli was received this morning. 
In reply to your enquiries about the Mecklenburg Declaration, I find 
myself constrained to say several things which might be much 
more satisfactorily communicated if I had you before me in the 
midst of the books and documents to which I must necessarily refer. 

The preface to the State Pamphlet, of which you speak, was writ- 
ten by me for Gov. Stokes. The report of the committee (p. 9) was 
drawn by Mr. Badger, of the United States Senate, the brother-in- 
law of Gen. J. G. Polk, Chairman, and the son-in-law of Colonel 
Wm. Polk. The latter was the only surviving field officer of the 
North Carolina line, a shrewd observer, and of unquestioned truth- 
fulness, and it was he who first called attention to the subject by 
the publication which produced the correspondence between Adams 
and Jefferson. 

Neither Gov. Martin's Proclamation, nor the five Resolutions in 
the American Archives (Vol. XL, p. 855), had then been disin- 
terred by Col. Force, and it is not very surprising that in the then 
state of facts I should have yielded to the force of my own argu- 
ment. (Gov. Stoke's preface.) 

The entire series of Resolutions adopted 31st of May (2d Wheeler, 
p. 255), was first discovered in the Charleston Library by Dr. Joseph 
Johnson, after repeated searches made at my instance, was copied 

♦Benson John Lossing, born in New York, February 12, 1813, au- 
thor of the Pictoral Field Book of the Revolution, Life of Wash- 
ington, and other books. Died near Dover Plains, New Jersey, June 
3, 1891.— D. A. T. 


and communicated to me, and by me sent to Mr. Bancroft, at Lon- 
don. He had found it there before my letter reached him, but not 
until after Dr. Johnson had sent it to me. 

All the original papers which were copied in the State Pamphlet 
are now in my possession. I have examined Dr. Smyth's pamphlet, 
Mr. Tucker's life of Jefferson, and probably all that has been writ- 
ten, and worth reading upon the subject There may have been a 
meeting of the Committee on the 20th, and resolutions may have 
been adopted; but there \s no evidence satisfactory to my mind if 
it be so, that the papers purporting to be Mecklenburg Declaration 
are true copies of the original record. If they be, where were they 
made and by whom? 

The Davie paper, as we call it, (State Pamphlet, pp. 14, 15, 16 )» 
shown to be in the handwriting of John McKnitt Alexander, in 
whose house the original was burned in April, 1800, was written in 
September, 1800, about five months after the destruction of the 
record. It was not taken from the record, it is not shown to be the 
copy of a copy, or that there was a copy extant in September, 1800.* 
In form it appears to be a narrative of past events, not a record of 
present proceedings. Compare it with the copy in second Martin's 
History of North Carolina, page 574, and the discrepancies are 
numerous and remarkable. The former consists of five, the latter of 
six resolutions. The former speaks in tne past, the latter in the 
present time ;and in fine the latter i® not merely an enlarged, but an 
improved edition.* I wrote to Judge Martin in 1842, requesting 
to be informed when and by whom his copy was furnished, but I 
did not succeed in extracting a reply.** 

Without entering farther into the enquiry than to call attention to 
the two facts which follow, I feel free to say that I regard the paper 
of the 31st as the better, supposing both to be genuine. 

1. You will perceive from the editorial copied from the Raleigh 
Register (p. 23), that previous to February, 1820, CoL Polk, who was 
present at the meeting held, "thought there were errors as to the 

♦The **Davie paper" was written from memory by John McKnitt 
Alexander, and the fact that its variance from the genuine (Mar- 
tin's) copy is no greater, is evidence that John McKnitt Alexander 
was thoroughly acquainted with the original document See his 
certificate.— D. A. T. 

♦♦Martin testified to Dr. Hawks that he secured the copy before 
1800 from some one (not an Alexander) in Western North Caro- 
lina, but that at that late date, he did not remember the name of the 
person. — D. A. T. 


names of the secretary, etc." There was hut one clerk on the 31st, 
Bph. Brevard. Is it probable that a committee organized under the 
articles of the American Association would have had two clerks at 
any time?* 

2. How is it to be accounted for that the Resolutions of the 31st 
make no reference to the proceedings of the 20th, if the former were 
not merely more important than but the foundation of the latter? 

Dr. Brevard died in a short time, and was no doubt succeeded in 
his office as clerk of the committee by J. McK. Alexander. Mr. Alex- 
ander's house was burned in April, 1800, and with it, as was ©up- 
posed, the only written memorial of a most interesting and import- 
ant historical event. The narrative sent to Gen. Davie was proba- 
bly the most accurate account of the great transaction which his 
memory enabled him to furnish. Be this as it may, the evidence 
that the paper published in the Cape Fear Mercury and denounced 
by (Jov. Martin; that transmitted by Gov. Wright to Lord Dart- 
mouth, aind the official dispatch forwarded by Capt. Jack to the Con- 
tinental Congress are identical with the copy discovered in Charles- 
ton, is exceeding strong, if not conclusive. 

The evidence of Gen. Graham on the point to which you refer, 
goes very far towards identifying the Resolutions of the 31st as 
those discussed in his hearing. The statement of John Simeson 
(p. 25), which seems not to have attracted your attention, appears 
to me to strip the enquiry almost of reasonable doubt At the dis- 
tance of fifty years the memory of no man can be relied upon as to 
dates and precise form of expression, while there are substantial 
facts so remarkable that no man can forget them. 

"As to the names of those who drew up the Declaration, I am in- 
clined to think Dr. Brevard was the principal, from his known 
talents in composition. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

"It was towards the close of May, 1775. In addition to which I 
have said the same committee appointed three men to secure all the 
military stores for the county's use. Thomas Polk, Jonn Phifer and 
Joseph Kennedy. I was under arms near the head of the line near 
Col. Polk, and heard him distinctly read a long string of grievances, 
the Declaration and military order above." Apply this statement, 
of Mr. Simeson to the last of the series of the Heeolutions of the 
31st of May. "That the Committee appoint Col. Thomas Polk and 
Dr. Joseph Kennedy to purchase 300 lbs. of powder, 600 pounds of 
lead, 1,000 fiints for the use of the county and deposit the same in 
such places as the Committee may hereafter direct. 

♦There was but one Secretary May 20. — D. A. T. 


"Signed by order of the Committee, Ephraim Brevard, Clerk of 
the Committee." 

There ifi something potential in this closing resolution decidedly 
Cromwellian, and in unison with the character of the sturdy Scotch- 
Irish Presbyterian from whom it emanated: 

"Then put your trust in God, my boys, 
And keep your powder dry." 

Queen's College was the Faneuil Hall of the South. Are you 
familiar with its history? Previous to its establishment there were 
but two chartered seminaries of learning in the province — Edenton 
and New Bern Academies. None but a member of the Established 
Church was eligible to the ofllce of trustee or instructor, and the 
la/tter even appointed by the Governor. The Presbyterians applied 
to the Colonial Assembly for an unrestricted charter for a college 
in a county named in compliment to the King and Queen, Meck- 
lenburg (Strelitz), the native place of the latter, in a town bear- 
ing the name of his consort, for an institution to be known by the 
titular distinction. The bill passed the Commons, of course; the 
Council did not choose to breast the storm of popular indignation, 
which a rejection would have excited. Gov. Tryon had not the 
firmness to disallow it;" but the triple compliment to royalty 
availed little on the other side of the Atlantic, and a year after- 
wards, 1771, the charter was "repealed by a royal proclamation." 
It continued to exist nevertheless, and the first Legislature under 
the State Constitution, in 1777, gave it a charter by the name of 
Liberty Hall Academy. In accordance with the instruction of the 
people of Mecklenburg, the Constitution of 1776 made the creation 
of a University imperative upon the Legislature and declared 
that no preference should be given to one religious denomina- 
tion over another. So far as Mecklenburg was concerned, the war 
of the Revolution was a war waged mainly for religious liberty, 
and this was the seminal principle which made it, "the most re- 
bellious county in America." The instructions, etc., (2d Wheeler, 
p. 260) should bear date in September, 1776, instead 1775. I have 
the original papers before me. You are probably aware that Foote 
and others, regarding it as dated in 1775, rely upon it as giving 
collateral support to the Declaration of the 20th. 

It is proper that I should apprise you that Dr. Smyth, of Charles- 
ton; Gov. Graham and Judge Cameron, and many others, concur 
with Dr. Hawks in the opinion that the authenticity of the latter 
paper cannot be controverted. 

While I have never assumed to speak excathedra upon this sub- 
ject, I have never concealed my opinion from my friends. Wheeler 


and Wiley were fully apprised of them, and the former persisted in 
maintaining the authenticity of the paper despite of assurances 
from me that none of the gentlemen* to whom his book is dedicated 
would sustain him. If you publish the sketch of Gov. Caswell, 
sent you sometime since, please strike out the words "in conjunction 
with Col. LiUington." The statement implying a divided command 
was first made by Jones and followed by Wheeler, in entire disre- 
gard or ignorance of all the evidence, traditionary and written 
on the subject and in the teeth of records of uncontrovertable 
verity. The very Assembly, which ii\ April, 1776, gave Caswell a 
vote of thanks and promoted him to the office of Brigadier General 
of the New Berne District, appointed John Ashe Brigadier General 
of the Wilmington District, over the head of Lillington. I sat 
down without any intention of writing so long a letter. The day 
is very cold and my fingers very numb, and I have written in una- 
voidable haste. You will read, however, if you succeeded in deci- 
phering it at all, with unavoidable deliberation. You may show it to 
Mr. Bancroft if you choose. 

Yours very truly, 

D. L. Swain. 

You must not infer from what I have said that I do not consider 
Col. Lillington to have been a meritorious officer. Very far from 
it. I mean simply to say, that at Moore's Creek he acted, and was 
regarded universally, as a subordinate. 

(Governor Swain to Hon. George Bancroft.)** 

Chapel Hill, j6th March, 1858. 
My Dear Snt:— Your note of the 1st was received yesterday. The 

♦"To George Bancroft, LL. D., whose writings have marked the 
age in which he lives, and the only historian who has done justice 
to North Carolina; to Peter Force, of Washington City, whose patient 
labors and indefatigable research have proved his early patriotism; 
and to David L. Swain, LL. D., whose native worth, whose services 
and whose talents are alike her pride and ornament." — ^Wheeler's 

♦ ♦George Bancroft, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, October 3, 
1800, graduated at Harvard in 1817, studied in Europe until 1822, 
Secretary of the Navy in Polk's Cabinet, Minister to England from 
1846 to 1849, Minister to Germany from 1867 to 1874. First notable 
work, "History of the Colonization of the United States," published 
In 1834. Greatest work, History of the United States in ten volumes. 
Died in Washington, January 17, 1891.— D. A. T. 


cop7 of my report, to which you refer, is, as you peroeive from the 
date, a corrected reprint of the one sent you a year ago.* The reply 
of Lord Shaftebury, a copy of which you were so kind as to send 
me, was not received until after my report to the General Assembly 
was published. I wish very much it was in my power to have a 
personal conference with you in relation to the Mecklenburg Reso- 
lutions, and other events in our Revolutionary history. I have held 
very free and full discussion with Dr. Hawks after a minute exami- 
nation of all the papers at my command, and we understand each 
other better, and are more nearly together in opinion than we were 
at the time we appeared before your Historical bociety. I would 
like very much to go over the same ground with you. He never 
saw the evidence on which I rely as conclusive until his arrival 
here in June last, after the delivery of his lecture in Charlotte. At 
the close of the examination I gave him a paper copied below, 
and expressed the opinion that every fact set forth might be em- 
bodied in a special verdict, and established by the evidence before 
us, if an issue were made up and submitted to a Jury. 

"The documentary evidence in my possession satisfies me that 
there was a meeting of the Citizens of Mecklenburg, at Charlotte, 
on the 19th and 20th of May, 1775, and that resolutions in relation 
to independence were discussed and adopted. I entertain no doubt 
that the record of the proceedings of the Mecklenburg Committee 
was burned in the home of John McKnitt Alexander, in the month 
of April, 1800, and that the Davie paper contains what Gen. Graham, 
Col. Wm. Polk, and other gentlemen of high character, whose cer- 
tificates appear in the State Pamphlet, believed to be a true narra- 
tive of the transactions of these two days. I have seen no paper 
purporting to be a copy of the resolutions, which I suppose to be of 
earlier date than September, 1800. 

"I entertain the opinion that the resolutions of the 31st May 
were the resolutions published in the Cape Fear Mercury, and 
referred to in the Proclamation of Governor Martin, and that there 
was no contemporaneous publication of the proceedings of the 19 
and 20 of May. That a copy of the record of these events was placed 
in the hands of Dr. Williamson, with the intent that they should find 
a place in history of North Carolina, I believe to be incontro- 

I send you by the present mail a copy of the University Magazine 
for November. The leading article on the battle of Moore's Creek 
is worthy of your attention. In addition to the authorities relied 
upon by Prof. Hubbard, the article Caswell, in Roger's Biographical 
Dictionary, and more especially a note in 2d Williamson, N. C, pp. 

♦Refers to his report as State Historical Agent— D. A. T. 


277-78, which escaped the research of Prof. H., supply direct and 
positive evidence of the accuracy of Prof H/s conclusions. Wil- 
liamson was at the head of the medical staff of our Revolutionary 
Army, was not merely contemporary with Caswell, but knew him 
familiarly during the most interesting period of his life, and sur- 
vived him many years. But for Caswell's resignation he would 
have been his colleague in the Convention that formed the Federal 
Constitution in 1787. 

Yours very truly, 

D. L. Swain. 
Hon. George Bancroft. 

Who was Col. Grey of the Loyal Militia of S. C, whose MS. you 
placed in the possession of Prof. Riven, of Columbia? Sabine makes 
no mention of him. May I publish the MS.?* 

(Governor Swain to Hon, George Bancroft,) 

Chapel Hill, 18th March, 1858. 

My Deab Snt: — I avail myself of the earliest opportunity to reply 
to your note of the 11th, which arrived during my absence of a few 
days in attendance upon a meeting of the Green Mountain Associa- 
tion at Greensborough. 

There is no document which fixes with certainty the date of the 
first meeting in Mecklenburg; nor, with the exception of a series 
of doggerel verses which have recently come into my possession, 
is there any paper containing a direct reference to the subject, 
which I suppose to be of earlier date than September, 1800. The 
conclusion at which I have arrived is founded upon a chain of facts 
and inferences which I could very readily present to your consid- 
eration, if we were together with the papers before us, but which I 
cannot very readily explain in writing. 

The inquiry, indeed, seems to be, at present, of little importance, 
since it is concluded (conceded) on all sides that the resolutions 
of the 31st May were the resolves published in the Cape Fear Mer- 
cury, and transmitted by Gov. Martin to the English Government. 
The last paragraph on p. 12 of the State Pamphlet, states that at 
the close of the proceedings on 20th May "a select committee was 
appointed to draw a more full and definite statement of griev- 
ances." It is not reasonable to suppose that the committee met on 

♦Col. Robt Grey commanded a company In the regiment of 
South Carolina Loyalists, and his interesting narrative of Whig 
and Tory warfare in South Carolina m 1780-81 was published in the 
North Carolina University Magazine for November, 1858. — D. A. T.. 


the 3l8t without preconcert and preliminary arrangement, adopted 
a Beries of resolutions and adjourned. There can be no doubt that 
independent of the committee there was a numerous meeting of 
citizens, called by a summons from Col. Polk. This meeting prob- 
ably agreed upon some general principles which the committee was 
expected to embody in proper form and present to the Continental 
Congress. The Davie Paper is simply the narrative of these events, 
according to the recollection of John McKnitt Alexander, drawn up 
after the destruction of the original record. 

A note on page 5 of the State Pamphlet gives us the assurance 
of Gov. Stokes that in 1793 he saw in the hands of Dr. Williamson, 
in Fayetteville, a copy of this record, together with a letter from 
J. McKnitt Alexander in relation to it. I wrote the note myself 
under the direction of Gov. Stokes; and though I know he had an 
exceedingly retentive memory, did not at the time attach much 
importance to it. I have now before me a letter from Israel 
Pickens, whom I knew familiarly from my boyhood until the period 
*of his death. He represented my native district in Congress 
•during the War of 1812, and was the first Governor of the State of 
Alabama. He died in Cuba, after his election to the Senate of the 
United States. I know no living man whose testimony is entitled 
to higher consideration than that of Gov. Davie, Judge Cameron 
and Gov. Pickens. Gov. Picken's letter is addressed to his father- 
in-law, Gen. William Lewis, and is dated 23d March, 1823. 

"Agreeably to your request, I have made from my best recollection 
a statement of the proceedings of the Mecklenburg Convention of 
1775, as related to me many years ago by John McKnitt Alexander, 
Esq., formerly and until his death a resident of that county. The 
relation of that transaction by that remarkable old man made a 
strong impression on my mind, as well as it formed a curious part 
of the history of my native county, and because my informant him- 
self was a member of the Convention and proverbial for his scru- 
pulous accuracy in recollecting and detailing events. The following 
is concisely the substance of his narrative: 

"Understanding that Davie or Hugh Williamson was about to 
write a history of N. Carolina some twelve years ago, I apprised 
him of the circumstances of the Convention of Mecklenburg. He 
informed me that he had many years previously been informed of it 
by Gen. Steele and others, but compared their acts of anticipation of 
the American Independence to that whereby Virginia had claimed 
the title of the Ancient Dominion on account of having declared in 
favor of Charles the Second sometime before the restoration took 
place in England, both events being expected long before. 

"Whatever credit this small revolution may reflect on its author 
for patriotism, or whatever discredit for imprudence, or as a hia- 


torical fact, the relation here given is believed to be derived from 
A correct source and faithfully detailed. 

Yours most obt, 

Israel Pickens. 

The poem to which I refer above bears date 18th March, 1777^ 
extends thro* 260 lines, and is of unquestionable authenticity. It 
opens as follows: 


"When Mecklenburg's fantastic rabble. 
Renowned for censure, scold and gabble, 
In Charlotte met in giddy council. 
To lay the Constitution's ground sill. 
By choosing men both learned and wise, 
Who clearly could with half-shut eyes. 
See mill-stones through, or spy a plot. 
Whether existed such or not; 
Who always could at noon define 
Whether the sun or moon did shine, 
And by philosophy tell whether 
It was dark or sunny weather; 
And sometimes, when their wits were nice. 
Could well distinguish men from mice. 
First to withdraw from British trust. 
In Congress they, the very first, 
They their independence did declare." 

I am ashamed to send you this very hasty and almost illegible 
communication. I must either do so, however, or loose a "mail," 
and under your injuction of haste do not feel at liberty to delay 
my reply for trivial causes. 

Yours very truly, 

D. L. Swain. 
Hon. George Bancroft 

(Governor Swain to Hon. H. 8. Randall.)** 

Chapel Hill, 6th April, 1858. 
Dear Sib: — ^Your letter of the 31st ult. was received by yester- 

♦♦Henry S. Randall, bom in New York in 1811, graduated at 
Union College, and studied law, but never practiced. Secretary of 
the Stat^ of New York in 1851; member of the General Assembly in 
1871; published several volumes of his writings; author of Life of 
Thomas Jefferson (1758); died in Cortland, New York, in August, 


day's mail. By turning to the 18th page of my Report as Historical 
Agent to the General Assembly of North Carolina, a copy of which 
I send you, you will find a letter from Dr. Hawks, in which he 
assures me that he will put no portion of his forthcoming History to 
press without submitting it to my examination. That assurance has 
since been repeated orally and in writing, and I am in daily expecta- 
tion of his arrival here with the MS. of his second volume** in oMer 
to afford the fairest opportunity for joint personal revision. Under 
these circumstances, I do not feel myself at liberty to anticipate or 
forestall him by any authorized publication of my views with re- 
spect to the Mecklenburg Resolutions. 

My letters to Mr. Bancroft were hastily written, and in their pres- 
ent shape, are unworthy of incorporation in such a work as yours. 
They contain, nevertheless, nothing which I do not believe to be true 
and susceptible of proof from evidence in my possession. The facts 
and inferences are entirely at your service and may be used at your 
discretion, in the composition of your narrative. 

You remark that the main question, so far as Mr. Jefferson is 
concerned f is this: ''Is the Alexander copy of the Mecklenburg 
Resolutions genuine f" The paper is unquestionably genuine, I 
have it before me, in the well-known hand-writing of John McKnitt 
Alexander. But what is it? It is not the record of the Mecklenburg 
Committee that perished in the fire which consumed Mr. Alexander's 
home in April, 1800; and this paper bears date in the following 
September. It is not a transcript, therefore, of the original record. 
If it be the copy of a copy, the inquiry presents Itself, of that 
copy: How authenticated? where, when and by whom taken? Does 
it purport to be a copy, or is it simply upon the face of it the 
most accurate narrative which Mr. Alexander's memory could 
supply of the transactions to which it relates? 

Regretting, for the reasons suggested, which I am certain will be 
satisfactory, that I cannot, with propriety, enter at present upon the 
preparation of such a paper as you desire, I remain. 
Very respectfully yours, 

D. L. Swain. 

H. L, Randall, Esq, 

Literature Discussing or Referring to the Mecklenburg Declaration, 

in Addition to that Contained in this Book. 

Raleigh Minerva, 1809. 

North American Review, January, 1821. 

♦♦Dr. Hawks* History of North Carolina, In two volumes, pub- 
lished in 1859, only covered the period from 1584 to 1729.— D. A. T, 


Nile's Principles and Acts of the Revolution, 1821. 

Dr. M. W. Alexander's Address at Hopewell, July 5, 1824. 

Catawba Journal (of Charlotte), October 19, 1824. 

Garden's Anecdotes of the Revolution, 1828. 

Martin's History of North Carolina, 1829. 

Memoirs of Thomas Jefferson, by Thomas G. Randall, 1829. 

Jones' Defense of North Carolina, 1834. 

Life of Jefferson, by George Tucker, 1837. 

New York Review, March, 1837, containing an article by Dr. 
Francis L. Hawks. 

Pamphlet, by Prof. George Tucker, replying to Dr. Hawks' article, 
Feburary, 1838. 

Southern Literary Messenger, April, 1838. 

Southern Literary Messenger, August, 1838, containing an article 
by Dr. C. L. Hunter, son of Rev. Humphrey Hunter. 

National Intelligencer, December 18, 1838. 

Nile's Register, May 25, 1839. 

Southern Literary Messenger, November, 1839, containing an arti- 
cle by Dr. C. L. Hunter. 
Southern Literary Messenger, June, 1839. 

Force's American Archives, 1839. 

History of Virginia, by Charles Campbell, 1847. 

Raleigh Register, February 14, 1847. 

Southern Presbyterian Review, March, 1848. 

Wheeler's History of North Carolina, 1851. 

Correspondence between Force, Bancroft and Swain, 1841 to 1858. 

Lossing's Field Book of the Revolution, 1852. 

North Carolina University Magazine, May, 1853. 

Nassau Literary Magazine (Princeton, N. J.), September, 1853, 
containing an article by Samuel S. Force. 

Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century, 1853, 
by Dr. J. G. M. Ramsey. 

Revolutionary History of North Carolina, 1853; addresses by 
Hawks, Swain and Graham. 

The Virginia Convention of 1776; an address by Hugh Blair 
Grigsby at William and Mary (College, July 3, 1853. 

National Intelligencer, September, 1856. 

Address by Dr. Francis L. Hawks, in Charlotte, May 20, 1857, pub- 
lished in the Charlotte Democrat; Carolina Watchman (Salisbury), 
May 26; North Carolina Whig (of Charlotte), May 26; Raleigh 
Register, May 27. 

National Intelligencer, August 13, 1857. 

National Intelligencer, November 6, 1857. 

Raleigh Sentinel, Charlotte Democrat and Wilmington Journal, 


June 18 to September 6, 1874, containing articles by Daniel R. Oood- 
loe. Major C. Dowd and John H. Wheeler. 

North American Review, April, 1874. 

American Historical Record, May, 1874, containing an article by 
Benjamin J. Lossing, LL. D. 

New York Herald, May 14 and 20, 1875, containing letters from 
Gov. Graham and others. 

Southern Home (of Charlotte), May 10, 1875. 

Address by Hon. Wm. A. Graham, February 4, 1875. 

Sketches of Western North Carolina, by Dr. C. Hunter, 1877. 

Wheeler's Reminiscences of North Carolina, 1884. 

Bancroft's History, 1884. 

Foote's Sketches of North Carolina. 

Memoirs and Reminiscences of Rev. Humphrey Hunter. 

Pitkin's Political and Civil History of the United States. 



RECEIPT, 1773. 


V- >v-- 



Unveiling in Charlotte in 1898 Attended with. Impressive Ceremo- 
nies. — ^Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson was Orator of the Occasion. — 
First Monument Association Incorporated in 1842. — Declaration 
Poem by Rev. W. W. Moore, of Virginia. 

May 20, 1898, the one hundred and twenty-third anniver- 
sary of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, a 
monument* to the memory of the signers was unveiled in 
Charlotte. The handsome granite shaft, bearing appropri- 
ate inscriptions on bronze tablets, stands in front of the 
Mecklenburg County Court House, which was built on the 
site of the building in which was conducted the school 
known successively as Queen's College, Queen's Museum 
and Liberty Hall Academy. 

The State Legislature, in 1842, passed an Act incorpo- 
rating the Mecklenburg Monument Association. May 20, 
1844, the first effort to raise money for the purpose wa^ 
made, a supper being given in Charlotte in honor of the! 
Revolutionary soldiers. There was a good attendance and 
a considerable sum was contributed. Judge Osborne, who 
made the address of the occasion started the subscription 
with a twenty-dollar gold piece. 

During the Centennial celebration in May, 1775, new in- 
terest was awakened in the projected building of the monu- 
ment. June 25, 1775, an organization was perfected, with 
Z. B. Vance, president; Dr. Joseph Graham and J. H. Wil- 
son, vice-presidents, and T. W. Dewey, secretary and treas- 
urer. A total of $5,000 was secured but was afterwards 
lost in the failure of the bank in which it was deposited. 

In 1890, the Monument Association was again formed, 
with Mr. F. B. McDowell as president, and under his man- 
agement the final and successful effort was made. For some 
years there was but little progress, and in the Fall of 
1897, the leaders of the movement resolved that the work 


should be culminated by the following anniversary. In a 
short time the amount of money on hand justified them in 
contracting for the monument and announcing that it would 
be unveiled May 20, 1898. 

The celebration on the day of the unveiling was one of 
the greatest ever witnessed in Charlotte. Speeches were 
made by Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, Mr. F. B. McDowell, 
Mr. J. P. Caldwell, Governor Atkinson, of Georgia, and 
Col. Julian S. Carr. Rev. J. R. Howerton, D. D, led ia 
prayer, and the Declaration of Independence was read by 
Capt. A. F. Brevard. Mr. McDowell stated that the Char- 
lotte Observer had offered a prize for the best poem on the 
Mecklenburg Declaration. Col. H. C. Jones then an- 
nounced that the winner was Rev. Walter S. Moore, D. D., 
of Hampden Sydney, Va., and he read the poem as follows : 

To Piedmont Carolina, where virgin prairie soil 
Bespoke abundant harvests to reward the tiller's toil, 
From homes beyond the ocean there came in days of old 
A band of sturdy heroes, a race of yeomen bold. 

On all Catawba's uplands — ^for there they found their rest, 
Those woods and wide savannas fulfilled their longing quest — 
They reared their modest dwellings, they built their kirk and school. 
For well they knew how danger grew from skeptic and from fool. 

Behind the walls of Deny, their father's faith in God 
Had filled their souls with courage to defy the tyrant's rod; 
'Twere folly then to fancy that sons of sires like these 
Would bear a yoke of bondage, or obey unjust decrees. 

Their heirloom was a volume which taught the rights of man. 
And made the least a king and priest free from despotic ban; 
The people are the sovereigns, with rights Inalienate. 
The people make the government, the people are the State. 

This truth was taught by Craighead, thus Mecklenburg believed. 
And when oppressive measures passed, her sons were not deceived; 
While others talked of redress as subjects of the crown. 
They boldly broke the tyrant's yoke, and flung the gauntlet down. 


Prom seven congregations in which they preached and prayed. 
Prom woodlands and plantations, in homespun garb arrayed. 
These yeomen rode to Charlotte, these man of mien sedate, 
While high empires shone in their eyes — they came to found a State. 

And there these dauntiess statesmen, in ringing words and high. 
Declared their Independence — "We'll win it or we'll die; 
With lives and sacred honor, with fortunes great or small. 
We will serve the cause of freedom, we will break the Briton's 

Next year the Nation followed where Mecklenburg had led. 
To all the world, with flag unfurled, her high resolve she read: 
"No more shall sons of freemen endure the tyrant's rod. 
This land shall be as Freedom, or we forsworn to God." 

Through flaming broil of battle where Britain's bravest stood. 
On fleld and flood, by blade and blood, they made their pledges good. 
And now, where'er their banner floats over land and sea. 
With grateful lays the people praise the men who made us free. 

Then up with granite column, inscribed with lofty phrase. 

Let Mecklenburg's achievement resound through endless days; 

Her sons were flrst to ujter the disenthralling word. 

Let men proclaim their deathless name till all the world has heard. 



Young Men Destroyed Ammunition and Supplies Intended for Use 
Against the Regulators. — Gov. Tryon's Proclamation of Pardon 
Excepted Them.— Leading Citizens Later Petitioned in Their 
Behalf and Secured the Pardon. — Col. Moses Alexander Pre- 
sented the Petition. 

March, 17, 1771, Governor Try on wrote to Colonel Moses 
Alexander, of Mecklenburg this letter : 

"As I have come to a resolution by consent of my Council to- 
March a Body of Troops from the Regiments of Militia of this Gov- 
ernment, it will be necessary that several Commissaries should be 
appointed for the service, and as you acquitted your&elf in that De-^ 
partment very much to my approbation in the late Hillsborough 
Expedition, I am induced to make you the offer of being Commissary 
to the Mecklenburg, Rowan and Tryon Detachments to supply the 
same with Ammunition, Provisions and about fifty camp kettles, at 
the same time observing that it would he very agreeable to me- 
could you make it so to yourself that Captain Polk should be equally 
interested and concerned with you in the undertaking. From Col. 
Harris you will learn the orders that are to be observed by the 
Mecklenburg Detachment which I expect to see greatly animated by 
the zealous. and spirited conduct of the several officers of the Corps- 
in so necessary and essential a service." 

Colonel Alexander immediately set about to procure the 

ammunition and supplies needed, at Charleston, South Car- 
olina. While the supplies of powder and camp kettles were 
being carried through that part of Mecklenburg, which is 
now Cabarrus, James Ashmore, James White, John White, 
Jr., William White, Robert Caruthers, Robert Davis, Ben- 
jamin Cochran', Joshua Hadley and "William White, son 
of the Widow White," all disguised as Indians, went to Cap- 
tain John Phifer's "old muster ground, where they found 
and stopped the wagons and enquired for the powder that 
was being carried to General Waddell; and in the wagon 
belonging to Colonel Alexander, they found the pow- 

OCTOBER 3, 1780. (See Vol. L, Page 62.) 

This monument is seven miles from Charlotte, on the Beatty's 
Ford road, and near by is the oldest house in Mecklenburg County, 
and ill the house are imbedded some of the bullets fired in the skii^ 
mish. The inscription is: "In Commemoration of the Mclntyre 
Skirmish, October 3, 1780. Erected by Mecklenburg Chapter Daught> 
ers of the American Revolution, 1901." 


<ier and took it out of the wagons, broke open the hogsheads 
and kegs that contained the powder and set the same on fire, 
and destroyed some blankets, leggins, kettles and other 
things, and then dispersed soon after." This is the account 
of the transaction as sworn to by James Ashmore, before 
Capt. Thomas Polk, June 22, 1771, Ashmore says, in 
regard to the incipiency, that he with a number of others, 
were together at Andrew Logan's "old plantation in conse- 
-quence of an advertisement (set up by one James McCaul, 
as it was said), when and where he was accosted by one 
James White Jr., to know whether he (Ashmore) thought 
it any harm to burn the i>owder," and they forthwith made 
and carried out the plan. 

When Gk>vemor Tryon issued his amnestry proclamation, 
June II, 1 77 1, he excepted those unknown persons who had 
blown up the ammunition at Phifer's Hill. Colonel Moses 
Alexander and the law officers of this county began dili- 
gently to. ascertain who had perpetrated this offense, and 
they were soon rewarded with success, Ashmore confessing 
and disclosing the names, under oath. When the authori- 
ties ascertained who the offenders were and under what cir- 
cumstances the crime had been committed, they relented and 
began to take measures to secure their pardon at the hands of 
Governor Tryon, and with success. The representation of 
the following facts, to the Governor and his Council to 
secure the pardon of the offenders, was made by "a number 
of the Distressed Inhabitants of Rocky River and Coddle 
Creek Settlement," and carried to Newbern in November, 
1 77 1, by Col. Moses Alexander, whose property it was that 
had been destroyed. 

The representation is as follows: 

"That whereas a certain number of young men. Ignorant of their 
Duty to our Sovereign Lord the King, riotously Assembled in a 
wicked manner. Combined against Government, without the least 
Knowledge, Advice, or Ck)nsent of Any Parent, friend, and some of 
them even Demented by Spirituous Liquors, did, about the first of 
May last, rashly and inconsiderately Destroy the ammunition of 
General Waddell and Sundrys, the Property of Colo. Moses Alexan- 


der; for which wicked deed, their parents and Friends are Drowned 
in Sorrows and the Unhappy Perpetrators truly and Deeply Af- 
flicted. Permit us, Yr Excellency's most humble petitioners, to as- 
sure your Excellency that these Miserable persons were, prior to 
this Fact, esteemed faithful and lo^al Subjects. We cannot but most 
tenderly Compassionate the Desolate and Distressed, and Even take 
part of their affiiction, and Having learned of your exceeding Hu- 
manity and that benign Temper of mind which you are so Eminently 
Possessed of, we therefore beg with expectation. Cannot but Solicit 
and most earnestly and importunately pray, that your Excellency 
would be Graciously pleased to extend to these unhappy, though un- 
worthy Subjects, his Majesties most free and gracious Pardon. That 
Your Excellency may see Loyalty to the best of Sovereigns and 
Fidelity to our noble Constitution, flourishing among us; and the 
Reigns of Government easy and Delightful! to yourself, shall be the 
Sincere Prayer of your Excellency's most humble and DutifuU Pe- 

The petition for pardon, which was granted, was signed 
by Moses Shelby, Samuel Loftain, Matthew Stewart, John 
Morrison, David Slough, Samuel Harris, James Morrison, 
Robert McMurray, William White, John Davis, John Rus- 
sell, Robert Russell, James Russell, William Scott, Robert 
Campbell, William Blair, Thomas Hall, Thomas Smith, 
William Adden, George Davys, Robert McCallan, James 
Callwall, James Harris, William Sper, John Callwall, Oliver 
Wiley, James Harris, David Caldwell. 

This petition was presented to the Governor in Newbem 
by Colonel Alexander, in November, 1771. The Council 
recommended the pardon of the offenders and Governor 
Try on issued the pardon. Some of the "black boys" were 
faithful soldiers in the Revolution. 

James AaJimor&a Testimony, 

June 22, 1771. — James Ashmore swears before Thos. Polk as fol- 

"North Cabolina, Mecklenburg County. 

"The Deposition of James Ashmore, of full age, who being Tolun- 
tarily sworn on the holy Evangelists of Almighty God, voluntarily 
deposeth and saith that he, this deponent, with a number of other 
persons, was convened at Andrew Logan's old plantation in conse- 

""bIvACK boys'" of CABARRUS. 63 

quenoe of an advertisemeat (set up by one James McCaul as it was 
said), when and where this Deponent was accosted by one James 
White, Junior, to know whether this Deponent thought it any harm 
to bum the powder then carrying through the County aforesaid, to 
the army then under the commahd of General Hugh Waddell, to 
which this deponent made answer that according to the Reports 
passing of the Governor and his officers, that he did not think the 
bare burning of the powder any Harm, and that then this deponent 
went Home and the Day following, between the Hours of ten and 
eleven o'clock, in the forenoon, this deponent quit work on his plan- 
tation and went to look for his Horses. When about three-quarters 
of a mile from his House this Deponent was met by six men, dis- 
guised, in the Road, who in appearance resembled Indians, but after 
some persuasion, consented in part and then went Home with his 
Horses, and after returned with Joshua Hadley to a place about half 
a mile from this Deponent's House, where were assembled with 
himself nine persons, to-wit., James White, Junior, John White, 
Junior, William White, Robert Caruthers, Robert Davis, Benjamin 
Cochran, Joshua Hadley and William White, son of the Widow 
White, who all went thence disguised to Oapt Phifer's old muster 
Ground where they found and stopped the waggons and enquired 
for the powder that was carrying to Gen. Waddell. When in the 
waggon belonging to Col. Alexander they found the powder and 
took it out of the waggons, broke open the Hogsheads and kegs that 
contained the powder, and set the same on Fire and destroyed some 
blankets, leggins, kettles and other things, and then dispersed soon 
after, having at this Deponent first joining of them sworn him to 
secrecy as they informed who they all before, and further this De- 
ponent sayeth not. 

James Ashmorb. 

Note.— All these papers are verbatim copies from the Colonial 



Condensed Items of Interest in the Lives of Persons Prominent in 
Mecklenburg History. — ^Brief Biographies Alphabetically Ar- 

Alexander, Abraham, bom in Maryland in 1718, moved 
to Mecklenburg and settled near the Catawba River, mem- 
ber and chairman of the County Court for many years; in 
the Legislature in 1771 ; presided at the Convention of May 
20, 1775 > di^d April 23, 1786, leaving a widow and five sons 
and one daughter. Was buried at Sugar Creek. 

Alexander, Adam, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was born in Maryland in 1728; moved to 
the Clear Creek section of Mecklenburg, prominent magis- 
trate of the county ; became a colonel in the Revolution ; died 
in 1798. He married Miss Shelby and had four sons — 
Evan, Isaac, Adam, Charles — and one daughter who mar- 
ried John Springs. 

Alexander, Ezra, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was born in 1720; was a Captain in the 
Revolutionary War, and in 1880 fought the Tories in Lin- 
coln County. He died in 1790 and is buried in the Sharon 
church yard. 

Alexander, Hezekiah, signer of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence, was bom in Pennsylvania January 13, 
1722; was a member of the District Committee of Safety 
in 1775, of the State Council in 1776; member of Provincial 
Constitutional Convention in 1777; lived four miles from 
Charlotte; died in 1801, and is buried in the Sugar Creek 

Alexander, Isaac, son of Adam Alexander, born in 1756; 
entered the army in 1775, and served throughout the war; 
married a daughter of David Reece, elected Clerk of the 
Court in 1790, and served until his death in 1833. 

Alexander, John McKnitt, signer of the Declaration and 

ffipaper Woman In North CarolJua; Editor of the Charlotte- 
Journal in 1861. 




secretary of the Convention, was born in Pennsylvania in 
1733, and came to North Carolina in 1754. He was elected 
to the Provincial Assembly in 1772; was a delegate to the 
Assembly at Hillsboro in August 1775, and to the Halifax 
Assembly in April, 1776; and was the first member of the 
State Senate from Mecklenburg, elected under the Consti 
tution, in 1777. He died July 10, 181 7, and is buried at 
Hopewell. He left two sons — ^Joseph McKnitt Alexander 
and William Baine Alexander. The former was born in 
1774, and died October 18^ 1841; and the latter was born 
May 3, 1798, and died February 2T, 1845. 

Alexander, Governor Nathaniel, bom in Mecklenburg in 
1756; married Margaret Polk Brevard (a daughter of Dr. 
Ephraim Brevard and grand-daughter of Thomas Polk); 
was graduated from Princeton University in 1776; studied 
medicine, and entered the army ; member of the General As- 
sembly in 1797, 1 801 and 1802, elected to Congress in 1802; 
elected Governor in 1803, and served two years; died in 
Charlotte November 8, 1808. 

Ardrey, Dr. William A., son of William and Mary Ar- 
drey, who emigrated to this country from Ireland in 1776, 
was born in York County, S. C, April 19, 1798; studied 
medicine, and located in the lower part of Mecklenburg; 
married Mrs. Lydia L. Cureton, daughter of John Potts, by 
whom he had seven children. Capt. James P. Was killed in 
the Civil War; Capt. W. E., of Providence township; J. W. 
of Fort Mill, S. C; Dr. J. A., of Pineville; Mrs. Mary J. 
Bell, of Providence; Mrs. Margaret R. Potts, and Mrs. S. 
H. Elliott. 

Alexander, William Julius, born in Salisbury in March, 
1797; educated at Poplar Tent, by Rev. Dr. Robinson; was 
graduated from the University in 181 6; studied law under 
Archibald Henderson, and was admitted to the bar in 181 8. 
He married Catherine, daughter of Joseph Wilson; was 
elected to the Legislature from Mecklenburg in 1826, and 
re-elected until 1830, when he succeeded Joseph Wilson as 
Solicitor; was appointed Superintendent of the Charlotte 
Mint in 1846. 


Avery, Waightstill, signer of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence, tenth child of Humphrey Avery, was 
bom in Connecticut, May 3, 1743; was graduated from 
Princeton in 1766; studied law with Littleton Dennis, of 
Maryland, and came to North Carolina and was admitted to 
the bar in 1769. He lived with the family of Hezekiah 
Alexander; was a member of the Hillsboro Provincial Con- 
gress of August, 1775, and of the Halifax Congress in 
April, 1776. In the latter Avery, who was a learned 
scholar, rendered important service in forming the Constitu- 
tion and Statutes of the State. He was a member of the 
Legislature in 1777, and was elected Attorney General in 
1778. He moved to Burke County in 1781 and died there 
in 1821. 

Balch, Rev. Hezekiah James, signer of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration of Independence, was bom in Harford County, 
Maryland in 1748; was graduated from Princeton in 1766, 
in the same class with Waightstill Avery, He studied for 
the ministry and was apppointed a missionary to North Car- 
olina by the Synods of New York and Philadelphia. He 
was the first pastor of Rocky River and Poplar Tent 
churches, and served those congregations until his death in 
1776, and is buried in the church-yard at the latter place. 

Barringer, John Paul, born in Germany in 1721, arrived 
in Philadelphia, in 1743; married Ann Eliza Iseman in 
Pennsylvania, in 1750; after the death of his first wife, mar- 
ried Catherine Blackwelder; Captain of the militia; exerted 
great influence in having Cabarrus County created; died in 
1807. His brother, George, emigrated to this country and 
settled at Gold Hill; Matthias, another brother, settled in 
Lincoln, and was killed by the Indians. Three sisters also 
came; Catherine married Christian Overstein; Dolly mar- 
ried Nicholas Cook, and Elizabeth married Christian Bam- 

Barringer, General Paul, son of John Paul and Catherine, 
was born in 1778 in what is now Cabarms County; a prom- 
inent and influential citizen; commissioned Brigadier-General 
of the North Carolina troops in 1812 ; member of the Legis- 




lature from Cabarrus from 1806 to 181 5, and of the State 
Senate in 1828; died at Lincolnton June 20, 1844, and was 
buried at Concord. He married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Matthew Brandon in 1805, and their children were as fol- 
lows; D. M., member of Congress, Minister to Spain; 
Paul, of Mississippi; Rev. William, of Greensboro; Gen. 
Rufus Barringer, of Charlotte; Major Victor C. Barringer, 
First North Carolina Cavalry and Judge of International 
Court of Appeals in Egypt, 1874 to 1894; Margaret 
married John Boyd, and after his death married Andrew 
Grier; Mary, married Charles Harris, M. D. ; Elizabeth, 
married Edwin Harris; and Catherine married W. G. . 

Barringer, General Rufus, bom at Poplar Grove, Cabar- 
rus County, December 2, 1821; educated at Sugar Creek 
and at the State University, from which he was graduated 
in 1842; studied law under his brother, D. M. Barringer, 
and later under Judge Pearson, was a member of the Legis- 
lature from Cabarrus in 1848, and of the Senate in 1849; 
was a Bell and Everett elector in i860; commissioned as 
Captain of Company F of the First Cavalry Regiment in 
May, 1861 ; Major in August, 1863; Lt. Colonel in October, 
1863; Brigadier-General in June, 1864; located in Charlotte 
after the war; was influential in the establishment of the 
graded school and the public library; died February 3, 1895. 
He married, first, Eugenia, daughter of Dr. R. H. Morrison, 
and they had two children : Anna, who died young, and Dr. 
Paul Brandon Barringer, now of the University of Virginia ; 
second, Rosalie Chunn, of Asheville, who had one son, 
Rufus; third, Margaret Long, of Hillsboro, who had one 
son, Osmond L. Barringer. 

Barry, Richard, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was bom in Pennsylvania in 1726; married 
Anne Price, of Maryland; moved to Mecklenburg in 1760, 
and settled twelve miles northeast of Charlotte; member of 
the County Court ; served in the militia, and was with Gen. 
Davidson at Cowan's Ford; died August 21, 1801. 

Brevard, Dr. Ephraim, signer of the Mecklenburg Decla- 


ration of Indq)endence, son of John Brevard, who married 
Jane McWhirter, was bom in Maryland in 1744, and his 
parents moved with their family to North Carolina in 1747; 
was graduated from Princeton University in 1768; studied 
medicine in Maryland, and began practice in Charlotte; was 
a tutor in Queen's Museum; married a daughter of Thomas 
Polk, by whom he had one daughter; was captured at the 
surrender of Charleston in 1780, while serving as a surgeon; 
was taken sick in prison and was released; returned home, 
and lived only a few months, dying in 1781, at the age of 
37 years. 

Caldwell, Dr. D. T., son of Rev. S. C. Caldwell, and 
grandson of John McKnitt Alexander, was born in 1796; 
Kducated by his father at Sugar Creek Church and at the 
State University; studied medicine under McKenzie and in 
Philadelphia ; was a leading physician for many years ; mar- 
ried Harriet, daughter of William Davidson, by whom he 
liad four children; died December 25, 1861. 

Caldwell, Green Washington, bom in Gaston County, 
near Tuckaseege Ford, April 13, 181 1; was educated by 
John Dobson; studied medicine with Dr. Doherty, near 
Beattie's Ford, and practiced for sometime, but finally 
abandoned it for the practice of law ; elected to the Legisla- 
ture from Mecklenburg in 1836 and 1838, and to Congress 
in 1841 ; appointed Superintendent of the Charlotte Mint 
in 1844; declined the nomination of his party for Governor 
in 1846; volunteered for the Mexican War and served as a 
Captain; was elected to the State Senate in 1849, with his 
brother officers (J. K. Harrison and E. C. Davidson) as 
members of the Legislature. 

Caldwell, Rev. Samuel Craig, son of Dr. David Caldwell, 
of Guilford, and grandson of Rev. Alexander Craighead; 
began preaching in 1792, and continued until the year of 
his death, 1829; married twice and had eleven children, five 
of whom became ministers. 

Clark, Jonas, born in Pennsylvania, May 16, 1759, came 
with his parents to Mecklenburg in 1771 ; entered the army 
in 1779, and served in Georgia, South Carolina and North 



Carolina, and in the battles at Hanging Rock, Eutaw 
Springs, Guilford Court House and Cowan's Ford. He 
lived in Mecklenburg until 1830, when he removed to Madi- 
son County, Tenn., where he died February, 28, 1846. 

Cummings, Rev. Francis, D. D., bom in Pennsylvania in 
1752; moved to Mecklenburg in 1771; was in Charlotte 
May 20 1775 ; taught school during the Revolution; licensed 
to preach, and served congregations in North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia; was a member of the South 
Carolina Constitutional Convention in 1788; died February 
2, 1832. 

Davidson, Adam Brevard, son of Jack Davidson, whose 
wife was Sally Brevard, was born March 19,1808, and died 
July 4, 1896. He married a daughter of John Springs of 
South Carolina. ^ He was a wealthy planter and leading 
citizen for many years; moved from his farm to Charlotte 
in 1876 and lived there until his death. 

Davidson, John, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 
December 15, 1735. His father was Robert Efe.vidson. He 
was a member of the Colonial Assembly in 1771; was a 
Major in the army in 1776, and served under General Ruth- 
erford in the campaign against the Cherokee Indians. H€f 
was with General Sumter in 1780 at the battles of Hanging 
Rock and Rocky Mount; with Joseph Oraham and Alex- 
ander Brevard, he established Vesuvius Furnace, Terza 
Forge, and other iron works in Lincoln County. He died 
January 10, 1832, in his 97th year, at the house of his son- 
in-law, William Lee Davidson, who was a son of Gen. Wil- 
liam Davidson. 

Davidson, William, State Senator from 1813 to 1817; 
Congressman from 181 8 to 1821 ; State Senator from 1827 
to 1829; a prominent and influential citizen for many years. 

Davidson, General William Lee, was born in Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1746. He was the youngest son 
of George Davidson, who moved to North Carolina and set- 
tled in Rowan County in 1750. William Lee Davidson was 
educated in Charlotte, and when the Revolutionary War 


began, he was commissioned a Major in the Fourth Regi- 
ment, of which Thomas Polk was Colonel. He rapidly 
rose to the rank of General and was killed at Cowan's Ford, 
on the Catawba, February i, 1781. He was active in the 
defense of Mecklenburg against the British invaders. He is 
buried at Hopewell, and a monument to his memory has 
been erected at Guilford Battle Ground. He married Jane 
Brevard, daughter of John Brevard, and sister of Ephraim 
Brevard, and left seven- children: George, William Lee, 
John, Ephraini, Jane, Parmela and Margaret. 

Davidson, William Lee, Jr., bom in 1777; lived near Da- 
vidson College, which was located on his land; moved to 
Alabama in 1850; married, but died in 1865, leaving no 

Davie, William Richardson, son of Archibald Davie, was 
bom at Egremont, England, June 20, 1756; was brought 
to the Waxhaw settlement (in South Carolina) in 1763; 
educated in Charlotte and in Princeton University; entered 
the army in 1776; Lieutenant of Cavalry in 1779; Captain 
and Major ift the same year; participated in the battle of 
Stono; Commissary-General in 1781; commanded in the 
battle at Hanging Rcx:k ; active in the fighting around Char- 
lotte; present at the battle at Guilford Court House; began 
the practice of law in 1783, married Miss Sarah Jones, of 
Northampton, and settled at Halifax ; member of the Fed- 
eral Constitutional Convention in 1787; elected Governor in 
1798; Special Envoy to France in 1799; moved to near 
Landsford, S. C, in 1805 ; died November 18, 1820, and was 
buried in the old Waxhaw cemetery. 

Downs, Henry, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Pennsylvania in 1728; moved to 
the Providence section of Mecklenburg in 1746; died Octo- 
ber 8, 1798, and was buried at Providence. 

Dunlap, Dr. David R., grandson of Rev. Alexander 
Craighead, whose daughter, Jane, married Mr. Dunlap, of 
Anson' County, was born in Anson in 1781, moved to Char- 
lotte in 1805, and practiced his profession until 1845; was 
Clerk of the Court of Equity; died in 1865. He married. 



first Miss Jenkins, of Anson County, by whom he had one 
son ; and, second, her sister. This being contrary to Presby- 
terian doctrine, he withdrew from the Church and became 
one of the pioneer leaders in Methodism in the county. 
After the death of his second wife, he married Miss Polly 
Lowrie, a daughter of Judge Lowrie, by whom he had one 
daughter, who married Dr. Edmund Jones, of Morganton, 
and after his death, married Col. T. H. Brem, of Charlotte. 

Erwin, John Randolph, son of William L. Erwin, born 
in York County, S. C, August i, 1838; moved to Steele 
Creek, in Mecklenburg, in 1851 ; engaged in merchandising 
until 1859, when he went to Texas, where he remained until 
1861 ; enlisted as a private in a Mecklenburg company and 
was soon elected a Lieutenant ; elected Captain of a Cavalry 
company in 1862, and served through the war; married Miss 
Jennie Grier, daughter of Major Z. A. Grier, of Steele 
Creek, in 1867; lived at Steele Creek from 1868 to 1873; 
returned to Charlotte; elected chief of police in 1873; Clerk 
of the Court from 1875 to 1887; went back to Steele Creek; 
Chairman of the County Finance Committee from 1893 to 
1895; chairman of County Commissioners (living in Char- 
lotte) from 1895 u^til his death, March 19, 1901, After 
the death of his first wife, he married Miss Sallie Grier, 
daughter of Col. Wm. M. Grier. 

Flennegin, John, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was bom in Pennsylvania March 7, 1744;, 
moved to Mecklenburg in 1761, and lcx:ated near McAl- 
pin's Creek; member of the County Court for several years; 
died in 181 5. His brother David was bom in 1748; served 
in the war; was wounded at Hanging Rock, and died in 
1826. Each of the brothers left several children. 

Ford, John, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Maryland in 1740; moved to 
Mecklenburg in 1768; was a magistrate and member of the 
County Court ; served the county militia during the war, and 
died in 1800. 

Gibbon, Dr. Robert, bom in Philadelphia in 1823; was 
educated at Yale and the Jefferson Medical College; moved 


to Charlotte to practice his profession in 1849; served as 
a surgeon in the Confederate service throughout the war; 
was a brother of the Federal General, John Gibbon, returned 
to Charlotte in 1865; married Miss Mary Rodger, of Char- 
leston, and had two children — Dr. Robert Gibbon, Jr., of 
Charlotte, and Dr. John Gibbon, of Philadelphia. After 
the death of his first wife, he married Miss Corrina Harris. 
Dr. Gibbon died in 1900. 

Graham, George, was bom in Pennsylvania in 1758, and 
came to Mecklenburg with his widowed mother in 1769. 
He was educated in Charlotte, and proved himself a zealous 
patriot before the beginning of the war. He was leader of 
the attack on the British at Mclntyre's, October 3, 1780; 
was for many years Clerk of the Mecklenburg Court, and 
several times a member of the Legislature ; died March 29, 
1826, in his 68th year, and is buried in Charlotte. 

Graham, Joseph, born in Pennsylvania in 1759, moved to 
the vicinity of Charlotte in 1769; was educated in Charlotte; 
present at the Convention of May 20, 1775; enlisted in the 
Fourth Regiment in 1778; Adjutant in 1780; opposed Com- 
wallis' entrance into Charlotte, with General Davidson at 
Cowan's Ford; died in 1836. 

Graham, William, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was born in 1746; raised a regiment in 
Lincoln County in 1776, and marched against the Scovilites 
in South Carolina, and later marched to Charleston. His 
command was at the battle of King's Mountain, under Col- 
onel Dixon. He died near Hopewell in 181 5. 

Grier, Calvin Eli, son of William M. Grier, born in Steele 
Creek township December 30, 1845; attended the Military 
Institute in Charlotte; enlisted as a private in 1861 ; served 
through the war and rose to the rank of Captain ; studied 
law, and located in Charlotte in 1868; moved back to Steele 
Creek in 1872, but returned to Charlotte in 1876; married 
Miss Addie Ramseur, daughter of General Ramseur, in 
1828; died May i, 1889, and was buried at Steele Creek. 

Harris, Charles, M. D. was born in what is now Cabarrus 
County in 1762; engaged in the fighting around Charlotte; 



was educated in Charlotte and at Clio Academy, in Iredell ! 
studied Medicine in Camden, S. C, and in Philadelphia; 
located in Salisbury and later moved to Cabarrus, where he 
remained. He died September 21, 1825, leaving two sons: 
William Shakespeare Harris and Charles J. Harris. 

Harris, James, bom in Pennsylvania in 1739; moved to 
Mecklenburg in 1750, served in the war and rose to the rank 
of Colonel; member of the State Senate in 1785; died Sep* 
tember 27, 1797. 

Harris, Robert, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Pennsylvania in 1741 ; moved to 
Mecklenburg in 1750. 

Hill, General D. H., was born in York County, S. C, in 
1821 ; was graduated from West Point in 1841, served with 
distinction in the Mexican War, rising to the rank of Major, 
and receiving a sword as a token of esteem of his native 
State; professor in Washington College, Va., from 1849 ^^ 
1854; professor in Davidson College from 1854 to 1859; 
Superintendent of the North Carolina Military Institute, in 
Charlotte, from 1859 to 1861 ; Colonel of the First North 
Carolina (Bethel) Regiment in 1861; rose to the rank of 
Lieutenant-General by gallant service ; returned to Charlotte 
in 1865 ; published "The Land We Love," and "The South- 
ern Home;" went to Arkansas in 1876 to accept the presi- 
dency of the State University ; President of the Georgia Ag- 
ricultural College in 1887; returned to Charlotte in poor 
health in 1889, and died there a few months later. He was 
buried at Davidson College. He married Miss Isabella, 
daughter of Dr. R. H. Morrison, who, with several children, 
survived him. 

Holton, Rachel Regina Jones, bom in Richmond May 
28, 1 81 3; married Thomas J. Holton, of Charlotte, in 1834; 
edited the North Carolina Whig for two years, from the 
time of her husband's death, in December of i860. 

Holton, Thomas Jefferson, son of Thomas Holton, borii 
in Richmond, Va., August 25, 1802; located in Salisbury 
to work as a printer in 1823; went from there to Fayette- 
ville, and moved from Fayetteville to Charlotte in 1828 and 


•established the Journal in the same year. The name of the 
paper was changed to the IVhig in 1852, and Holton con- 
tinued as editor until his death, December 27, i860. He 
was married to Miss Rachel Regina Jones, of Richmond, 
June 24, 1834. They had eleven children: Mrs. Sarah 
Deaton, of Charlotte; Mrs. Mary S. Sprinkle, deceased: 
Virginia W. Holton, deceased; Harrison Holton, of Char- 
leston; Henry C. Holton, deceased; Leopold Holton, de- 
ceased; Charles S. Holton, of Charlotte; Harriet C. Holton, 
of Charlotte; Margaret Q. Holton, deceased; Mrs. J. C. 

Hunter, Rev. Humphrey, bom May 14, 1755, in north 
of Ireland; landed at Charleston with his widowed mother 
in 1759, and proceeded at once to Mecklenburg and located 
in the Poplar Tent neighborhood; was present at the Con- 
vention, May, 20, 1775; educated by Rev. James Hall; 
Lieutenant in General Rutherford's campaign against the 
•Cherokees; licensed to preach in 1789; preached in York 
County, S. C, and at Steele Creek, where he died in 1827. 

Hunter, Rev. John, son of Thomas Hunter, born Novem- 
ber 13, 1 81 4; educated at Jefferson, Pa.; licensed to preach 
in 1843; preached in Mecklenburg except from 1855 to 
1858, when he was in Alleghany County; died May 16, 
1890; married, first, to Miss Isabella Peoples in 1843; sec- 
ond, to Mrs. Martha Bell, in 1861 ; third, to Miss Mary 
McDill in 1866. 

Hunter, Robert Boston, born in 181 8; married Rebecca 
Wilson Jones in 1845; died July 17, 1902. 

Hunter, Rev. Wm. May, son of R. B. Hunter, bom Feb- 
ruary I, 1850; educated at Due West, S. C. ; licensed in 
1874; preached three years in Charlottte, one in Georgia, 
ten in Iredell County, ten in Mecklenburg, and then at Leb- 
anon, W. Va. 

Hutchinson, William, bom in Augusta County, Va., in 
1750; removed to Mecklenburg in 1774, served as Commis- 
sary in Colonel Polk's Regiment in the Snow campaign, in 
1775; was a Lieutenant in Rutherford's Brigade in 1778; 
Captain in Colonel William Polk's Regiment in 1781 ; was a 



good citizen and well known in the county, and died Novem- 
ber 23, 1833. 

Irwin, Robert, son of William Irwin, signer of the Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Independence, was bom in Pennsyl- 
vania August 26, 1740; moved to Mecklenburg in 1763, and 
settled near Steele Creek; married Mary, daughter of Zeb- 
ulon Alexander; member of the Provincial Congresses in 
1776; participated in the Cherokee campaign of the same 
year; General of the State Militia; member of the General 
Assembly at intervals from 1778 to 1800; died December 
23, 1800, leaving seven children. 

Jack, Captain James, bom in Pennsylvania in 1739; 
moved to Charlotte in 1766; participated in the Snow cam- 
paign and Cherokee campaign and the Hornets' Nest; 
moved to Georgia in 1783, and settled in Wilkes County, 
where he died. 

Jackson, Andrew, Sr., bom in Carrickfergus, Ireland, in 
1720; married Miss Elizabeth Hutchison, emigrated to 
America in 1765; landed at Charleston, and settled on 
Twelve-Mile Creek, near the present town of Monroe, North 
Carolina. He died in February, 1767, and was buried in the 
old Waxhaw cemetery, near Landsford, S. C. He was the 
father of President Andrew Jackson, and Hugh and Robert 
Jackson. The two latter died young. 

Jackson, President Andrew. See Chapter XXXIX., 
Volume I. 

Johnston, Colonel William, born in Lincoln County, 
March 5, 181 7; educated at the State University; studied 
law under Judge R. M. Pearson; admitted to the bar and 
located in Charlotte in 1842; president of the Charlotte and 
South Carolina Railroad in 1856; was the chief mover in 
the building of the Atlantic, Tennessee & Ohio Railroad, 
-work on which was interrupted by the war; an ardent advo- 
cate of secession; delegate to the Secession Convention; 
'Commissary General of the State in 1861 ; engaged in rail- 
road constmction after the war; Mayor of Charlotte 1875, 
1876, 1877, 1885; married in 1846 to Miss Anna Eliza 
•Graham, diaughter of Dr. George Graham, and to them 


were bom Julia M., wife of Col. A. B. Andrews; Prank G. ; 
Cora J., wife of Capt. T. R. Robinson ; and W. R. Mrs. 
Johnston died in 1881, and Colonel Johnston in 1896. 

Kennon, William, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was chairman of the Rowan Committee of 
Safety in 1774; resided in Salisbury; was a prominent law- 
yer; member of the first Provincial Congress, and was ap- 
pointed Commissary to the First Regiment in 1776. 

Lowrie, Samuel, son of Robert Lowrie, was bom in New- 
castle County, Delaware, May 12, 1756, and came with his 
family to Rowan County in 1760. He was educated by 
Rev. James Hall, at Clio Academy, studied law in Camden, 
S. C, and was elected to the Legislature from Mecklenburg 
in 1804. He was elected a judge of the Superior Court in 
1806, and held the position until his death, December 22, 
1 81 8. He was married twice: First, to Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Alexander; second, to Mary^ daughter 
of Robert Norfleet, of Bertie County. 

Martin, Samuel, son of Hugh Martin, who emigrated 
from Ireland to New Jersey in 172 land brother of Governor 
Alexander Martin, of North Carolina, was born in New 
Jersey in 1746; came to North Carolina with his brother in 
1768, and he settled in Mecklenburg, while his brother 
located in Guilford; elected Clerk of the Court in 1774; dele- 
gate to the Provincial Congress in Augnst, 1775; served as 
a soldier in the war, being a Captain in the battle at Eutaw 
Springs; served as Clerk until his death in 1789. He mar- 
ried a widow Caldwell, of South Carolina, and left two 
children: Samuel A. and Jane C. 

McClure, Matthew, signer of the Mecklenburg Declara- 
tion of Independence, was bom in Ireland in 1745 ; came to 
Mecklenburg in 1760; settled six miles south of Davidson 
College, and died in 1808. 

Maxwell, William, born seven miles east of Charlotte, 
September 9, 1809, third son of Guy Maxwell, who emi- 
grated from Ireland in 1795. He was for many years a 
member of the County Court, and was apppointed Clerk in 
1862, and he continued in the office for six years; Register 




of Deeds from 1868 to 1888, and died October 26, 1890. 
His first wife was Mrs. Mary E. Johnston, who died a year 
after being married. His second wife was Miss Nancy A. 
Morris, by whom he had three children; D. G. Maxwell, 
W. C. Maxwell and Miss Carrie Maxwell. 

McLeary, Michael, born in 1762; served through the war; 
represented Mecklenburg in the General Assembly from 
1 81 9 to 1826, and died in 1828. 

Morris, Colonel Zebulon, son of William Morris and 
grandson of John Ford who was one of the signers of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, was bom ten 
miles east of Charlotte, April 23, 1789; married Martha, 
daughter of John Rae, in 181 4, was a prominent planter and 
slave owner; died May i, 1872. 

Morrison, Neal, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, son of James Morrison, was bom in Phila- 
delphia in 1728; moved to Mecklenburg in 1770; Captain in 
the Cherokee campaign of 1776; magistrate and member of 
the County Court; died in 1784, and was buried at Provi- 
dence. His son, William, served in the war, became, a 
prominent physician; member of the General Assembly in 
1796, and died in 1806. Alexander, another son was a 
miember of the General Assembly in 1801, 1802 and 1803. 
His daughter married Thomas Alexander. 

Morrison, Washington, State Senator in 1833. 

Neal, General Wm. H., bom in the south-western part of 
the county in 1799; General of the Militia before the war; 
County Commissioner; married Miss Hannah Alexander, 
by whom he had the following children: S. W. Neal, who 
moved to the Indian Territory and died there; Dr. Z. C. 
Neal, who practiced medicine in Mecklenburg and died in 
1901; Susan Neal, who married Rev. Walter W. Pharr; 
Mary Neal, who married Capt. N. H. Peoples ; Nancy Neal, 
who married R. W. McDowell ; W. B. Neal ; Louisa Neal, 
who married Rev. J. B. Watt, and P. A. Neal, who lives in 
Rock Hill, S. C. After the death of his first wife, he mar- 
ried Mrs. Martha D. Williamson. He died in 1889. 

Oates, Brawley, born in Cleveland County; moved to 


Mecklenburg in 1830; Clerk of the Court from 1836 to 
1842, and from 1845 ^^ 1854; married Miss Lillie Lowrie, 
daughter of Judge Lowrie, and had three children: Mar- 
garet married C. E. Spratt ; Mary married Mr. Agnew ; and 
Dr. David Oates, who served through the war and then 
emigrated to Alabama. He died in 1872. 

Osborne, Adlai, was bom June 4, 1744; was graduated 
from Princeton University in 1768; studied law; Clerk of 
the Rowan Court from 1770 to 1809; member of the first 
Board of Trustees of the State University; married Mar- 
garet Lloyd in 1771; lived in Salisbury, and died in 181 5, 
leaving a large family. 

Osborne, Alexander, bom in 1709; settled in Rowan 
County in 1755 ; was a Colonel in the Militia in 1768; mem- 
ber of the Rowan Committee of Safety in 1775; married 
Agnes, daughter of Rev. Alexander McWhirter; died in 
1776, leaving one son, Adlai, and four daughters: Rebecca 
miarried Nathaniel Ewing; Mary married John Nesbit; 
Jean married Moses Winslow; and Margaret married John 

Osborne, James W., son of Edwin J. Osborne, was born 
in Salisbury December 25, 1811; was graduated from the 
State University in 1830; studied law in Salisbury with 
Hon. Wm. A. Graham ; admitted to the bar in Charlotte in 
1833; was active in the public improvements, the establish- 
ment of the Mint and agitator for railroads; twice elector 
for the State at large; Superintendent of the Charlotte Mint 
from 1849 to 1853; appointed to a vacant judgeship by 
Governor Ellis in 1859, and confirmed by the General As- 
sembly in November, i860; member of the State Senate in 

1868, and member-elect at the time of his death, August 11, 

1869. He married Mrs. Mary A. Moore, daughter of 
John Irwin, of Charlotte, April 5, 1842, and left three sons 
and four daughters: R. D. Osborne, a soldier in the Civil 
War, died young; Frank Irwin Osborne, lawyer, solicitor 
of the Sixth District, and now Judge of the Court of Private 
Land Claims, and James W. Osborne, a prominent lawyer 
of New York City. 

Ordained Elder of the First Presbyterian Church of Charlotte, in 

August, 1833. 


.. 0- 


Patton, Benjamin, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, born in Ireland in 1838; settled in the Pop- 
lar Tent section of Mecklenburg in 1863; was an active 
church member and prominent in county affairs ; represented 
the county in the First Provincial Congress, held at New- 
bem in August, 1774; member of the Salisbury District 
Committee of Safety in 1775; collector of taxes for Meck- 
lenburg in 1782 ; died and was buried near Concord in 181 7. 
When he went to Newbem in 1774, he was unable to secure 
a horse, and walked there and back. 

Phifer, Caleb, was bom at Cold Water, April 8, 1749; in 
the Legislature, representing Mecklenburg, from 1778 to 
1792; State Senator from Cabarrus 1793 to 1801; Colonel 
in the Revolution; married Barbara Fulenwider; died July 
3, 181 1, leaving eight children. 

Phifer, John, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was born at Cold Water March 22, 1747^ 
married, in 1768, Catherine, daughter of Paul Barring^r;. 
•was a member of the Provincial Assembly at Hillsboro in 
August, 1775, and at Halifax in April, 1776, and of the 
Constitutional Convention of November, 1776; commis- 
sioned Lieutenant-Colonel in Colonel Griffith Rutherford's^ 
Regiment, December 21, 1776; served in the campaign 
against the Scovilites and the Cherokee Indians; and died 
at "Red Hiir' in 1778, leaving two children: Paul, who 
married Jane Alexander, and died in 1801, and Margaret, 
who married John Simianer, and died in 1806. 

Phifer, Martin, bom October 18, 1720; was a native of 
Switzerland, emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1738, and later 
to North Carolina. He settled in the Rocky River section 
of Mecklenburg, which was made into Cabarrus in 1792. 
He was prominent in county affairs before and during the 
Revolution; was a member of the Legislature in 1777; mar- 
ried Margaret Blackwelder, and died in 1789, leaving three 
sons : John, Caleb and Martin. 

Phifer, Martin, Jr., bom at Cold Water, March 25, 1756; 
married Elizabeth Locke; was Colonel of a Regiment of 


Cavalry on duty at Philadelphia; was a large land owner; 
died November 12, 1837, leaving five children. 

Phifer, William FuUenwider, descendant of Martin 
Phifer, bom in Cabarrus County February 15, 1809; moved 
to Charlotte in 1850 and died there. 

Polk, Ezekiel, son of William Polk, brother of Thomas 
Polk, and grandfather of President James Knox Polk, bom 
in Pennsylvania December 7, 1747; moved to North Caro- 
lina in 1754; Clerk of the Court in Tryon County in 1769; 
moved to Mecklenburg in 1778; was active in the Revolution 
but counseled peace. 

Polk, James Knox. See Chapter XXXIX, Volume I. 

Polk, Thomas, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, born in Somerset County, Maryland, in 1730. 
He was a son of William Polk, who was a son of John Polk, 
who emigrated from Ireland in 1685, ^^^ great tmcle of James 
Knox Polk; moved to Mecklenburg in 1754; was prominent 
in the events of the county in those times, and founded the 
city of Charlotte; was a surveyor, represented Mecklenburg 
in the General Assembly in 1770; Colonel of the Militia;' 
issued the call for the Convention of May 20, 1775; mem- 
ber of the Provincial Assembly during the Revolution, Col- 
onel of the Fourth Regiment in 1776; Commissary-General 
for General Greene's Army in 1781 ; owned mills and stores 
after the war; died in 1773 and is buried in the old cemetery: 
He married Susannah Spratt of Charlotte, and had several 
children: Ezekiel, Charles, William, James, and Margaret 
who married Dr. Ephaim Brevard. 

Polk, William, son of Thomas Polk, bom July 8, 1757, 
educated in Charlotte, was present at the convention of May 
20, 1775, served as a lieutenant in Snow Camp campaign in 
177s; appointed Major of the Ninth Regiment November 
26, 1776, participated in the battles of Brandy wine and Ger- 
mantown after having served in South Carolina, spent the 
winter at Valley Forge, served with Sumter at Hanging 
Rock and as Lieutenant-Colonel in South Carolina in 1781, 
was with Davie at the fight at Wahab's, represented Meck- 
lenburg in the General Assembly in 1787, 1790, and 1791, 



moved to Raleigh and became president of a bank and died 
there January 14, 1834. 

Queary, John, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, was born in Scotland in 1743; migrated first 
to Pennsylvania, and to Mecklenburg in 1767, lived and 
died near Rocky river arid was buried in what is now Union 

Reese, David, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
Independence, born in Wales in 1710, came to America in 
1725; married Susan Polk, of Pennsylvania, moved to 
Mecklenburg in 1750, acted as commissary during the war, 
lived near Poplar Tent and died in 1787. 

Robinson, Rev. John, born near Sugar Creek in 1768, 
educated in Charlotte, preached in Mecklenburg for more 
than half a century, and died December 15, 1843. 

Robinson, Robert, born in Lancaster county. Pa., in 1751 ; 
moved to Mecklenburg while very young, served in the army 
and in the battles at Hanging Rock, Ramsour's Mill, Char- 
lotte and "Mclntyres.'' Was well known and highly es- 
teemed and died August 26, 1839. 

Ross, Major E. A. See tribute in Chapter 20, Vol. 2. 

Shipp, W. M., was born in Lincoln county November 19, 
1 81 9, was graduated from the State University in 1840, ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1842 and began practice in Lincoln 
county, served as Captain in the Civil War until he was 
elected Judge, elected Attorney General of North Carolina 
in 1870, practiced law in Charlotte from 1872 to 1881, ap- 
pointed judge by Governor Jarvis in 1881 and elected for 
a term of eight years in 1882, died in 1890. He was mar- 
ried twice — first to Miss Catherine Cameron, second to Miss 
Margaret Iredell. He was a son of Bartlett Shipp. 

Strong, John Mason, M. D., son of Rev. Charles Strong, 
born in Newberry county, S. C, September i, 181 8; edu- 
cated at Jefferson College, Pa., studied medicine with Dr. 
John Harris, of Steele Creek, and in Charleston and in Jef- 
ferson Medical College, was a surgeon in the Civil War, 
lived at Steele Creek and died March 22, 1897. He was 


married first to Miss Rachel Harris, by whom he had five 
children, and second to Miss Nancy Grier. 

Walker, John, born in 1801 ; member of the General As- 
sembly from 1840 to 1848, 1854, 1869, chairman of the 
County Court, lived eight miles east of Charlotte and died 
September 8, 1876, leaving one son, Rev. James Walker. 

Waring, R; P., born in Virginia, moved to Charlotte in 
1850 and began the practice of law, began publishing the 
Charlotte Democrat in 1852, elected County Attorney in 
1855 and 1859, elector in the Buchanan campaign in 1856, 
appointed Consul to the Danish West Indies in 1859 and 
served there until the beginning of the Civil War, served 
throughout the war as Captain, returned after the war and 
edited the Times, arrested for treason in 1870 because of his 
denunciation of carpet baggers and military outrages and 
fined $300; elector in 1876, chairman of the County Court 
from 1877 to 1884, member of the General Assembly from 
1870 to 1875 ; assayer in charge of the Charlotte mint from 
1885 to 1889, and shortly thereafter retired to private life. 

Watson, Samuel Brown, M. D. ; born in York county, S. 
C, December 17, 1805; graduated from the Charleston 
Medical College in 1828 and located in Charlotte where he 
practiced until his death, August 24, 1895. 

Williams, Henry Bartlett, born July i, 181 1, for many 
years a leading citizen, died August 12, 1885. 

Wilson, Rev. John McKemey, D. D., son of John Wilson 
and grand-son of George McKemey, whose wife, Margaret, 
was a sister of Andrew Jackson's mother; born six miles 
east of Charlotte in 1769, educated at Liberty Hall, in Char- 
lotte, and at Hampden Sidney, Va., prepared for the minis- 
try by Rev. James Hall, licensed in 1793, served as itiner- 
ant missionary and in Burke county until 1801, in Mecklen- 
burg from 1801 until his death in 1831 ; married Miss Mary 
Erwin, of Burke county, taught a classical school for many 
years; died in 1831, leaving several children. 

Wilson, Joseph, educated by Rev. David Caldwell, licens- 
ed to practice law in 1804, elected to the Legislature from 
Stokes county in 1810, elected Solicitor of the Mountain 



Circuit in 181 2, and served in that capacity until his death 
in August, 1829. 

Wilson, Zaccheus, signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration 
of Independence, was born in Pennsylvania in 1735, moved 
to Mecklenburg in 1750, and settled in what is now Cabar- 
rus county, member of the Provincial Congress in 1776 and 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1788, moved to Tennes- 
see in 1796 and died in 1824. 

Yates, W. J., born in Fayetteville in 1827, began newspa- 
per work in his youth, became proprietor of the Fayette- 
ville North Carolinian, moved to Charlotte in 1856 and 
bought the Democrat, the Southern^ Home and Democrat 
were consolidated as the Home-Democrat in 1881, was pres- 
ident of the directors of the Morganton Asylum, trustee 
of the State University, declined all political honors, and 
died October 28, 1888. 



Born in that Part of Mecklenburg Which was Made Into Union in 
1842.— Moved Over Into South C: rolina When a Few Weeks Old. 
—Evidence of Those Who Were Present at His Birth.— Col. E. H. 
Walkup's Publication. 

Andrew Jackson, seventh President of the United States, 
was born in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, March 
15, 1767. The ruins of the McKemey cabin, in which he 
was born, are on the land belonging to Mr. J. L. Rodman, of 
Waxhaw, and are in Union County, which was cut off from 
Mecklenburg in 1842. The site is six miles south from Wax- 
haw, near the Charlotte and Lancaster road, and four hun- 
dred and eighty yards from the South Carolina line. 

In 1858, Colonel S. H. Walkup, of Union County, under- 
took the task of gathering testimony as to the time and place 
of Jackson's birth. He spent a great deal of time in the 
work, and accumulated conclusive evidence that Jackson 
was born in George McKemey's cabin, in the "Waxhaws," 
March 15, 1767. The affidavits were published in the North 
Carolina Argus, of Wadesboro, September 23, 1858, and 
were later printed in pamphlet form, and in Par ton's Biogra- 
phy of Jackson. The Charlotte and Lancaster papers of 
1858 engaged in a controversy over the questions involved, 
but all finally acquiesced in the completeness of Colonel 
Walkup's presentation of the facts. 

Fourteen affidavits were secured. They were made by 
persons, in several instances unknown to each other, yet they 
corroborate with uniformity every important detail. The 
substance of them is as follows: Six sisters — Misses 
Hutchison — married and emigrated with their husbands to 
this country, and settled in the "Waxhaws." Margaret 
married George McKemey, and settled on Waxhaw Creek, 
in North Carolina; Jane married James Crawford and settled 
on Waxhaw Creek in South Carolina; Elizabeth married 

L^Wliere Andrew Jackson, St., Died. 
2.— Where President Jackson was Bom. 
8.— Where President Jackson was Raised. 
4.— Where Andrew Jackson, Sr., was Buried. 

ANDREW Jackson's birthpi^ace. 85 

Andrew Jackson, Sr., and located near the present site of 
Pleasant Grove camp-ground, in North Carolina; Sarah 
married Samuel Leslie and settled near George McKemey's; 
Grace married James Crow and settled near Landsford*, S.. 
C. Andrew Jackson, Sr., built his cabin about nine miles: 
from South Carolina, and the site of it is known to this day. 
There, in February, 1767, he died, leaving a widow and two 
sons — Hugh and Robert. His body was interred in the old 
Waxhaw cemetery, near Landsford. Mrs. Jackson, soon af- 
ter the death of her husband, started to the home of her sister, 
in South Carolina. On the way she stopped to visit Mrs. 
George McKemey, another sister, and in her home, in the 
night of March 15, 1767, Andrew Jackson was bom. So 
soon as Mrs. Jackson recovered sufficient strength, she went, 
with her three boys, to the home of James Crawford, in 
South Carolina, and there Andrew lived for thirteen years. 
The Crawford place was two and one-half miles from the 
McKemey place. 

In the affidavits, Benjamin Massey, John Cames, John 
Lathan, James Faulkner and Thomas Faulkner (the three 
latter being second cousins of Jackson) , all declare that Mrs. 
Sarah Leslie and Mrs. Sarah Lathan (aunt and cousin of 
Jackson, respectively) often asserted that Jackson was born 
at George McKemey's and that they were present at his 
birth ; that Mrs. Leslie "was sent for on the night of his 
birth, and she took her daughter, Mrs. Lathan, and recol- 
lected well of walking the near way through the fields in the 
night time.'' In addition is the testimony of Mrs. Elizabeth 
McWhirter and her son George, and Mrs. Mary Cousar, who 
state that they were "near neighbors and present on the 
night of the birth of General Jackson, at the house of George 
McKemey, in North Carolina," March 15, 1767, which tes- 
timony rests upon the statements of Samuel McWhirter,. 
grandson of Mrs. Elizabeth McWhirter, and Thomas Cure-' 
ton and Jeremiah Cureton, who heard the old persons speak 
often and positively of the facts. 

For many years it was not known in which state the Mc- 
Kemey cabin was located, but the records of land titles ir^ 


the Mecklenburg County court house established the fact 
that the site of the cabin has always been in North Carolina. 
In a deed given by McKemey to Crawford in 1792, it is de- 
scribed as being "north of Waxhaw Creek." The McKemey 
tract of land was surveyed in 1757, for John McKemey, and 
was patented in 1761, was sold by John McKemey to Repen- 
tance Townsend in 1761, and by Townsend to George Mc- 
Kemey in 1766. McKemey sold it to Thomas Crawford 
(son of James Crawford) in 1792; Crawford to Jeremiah 
Cureton in 1796; from him, it passed to his son, William J. 
Cureton, from whose estate it was purchased by Mr. J. L. 
Rodman, the present owner. The records of the transac- 
tions, prior to 1842 are in the Mecklenburg County court 
house; after that year in Union County. 

Thus we have the sworn testimony of fourteen persons, 
whose irreproachable character will be vouched for by per- 
sons now living, many of them unknown to each other and- 
all agreeing in reporting the settled family traditions, that 
Andrew Jackson was born in the McKemey cabin, March 
15, 1767; and the incontrovertible testimony of the county 
records, that the McKemey place is and always has been in 
North Carolina. 

Authority and References: — Governor Swain's Tucker Hall Ad- 
dress; Parton's Biography of Jackson; Appleton's Encyclopedia; 
The North Carolina Argus of September 23, 1858; Register's Book 
XIV, page 202, and Book XI, page 38. The name "McKemey" was 
spelled in various ways; the spelling Jxere adopted is that on his 
tombstone and is the version accepted by Parton. Greorge McKemey 
could not write, and consequently his name was spelled variously in 
his depositions. 

Where Andrew Jackson Lived for a Short Time in 1780, With the 
Family of John Wilson who Married Margaret McKemey, a 
Cousin of Jackson, and was the Father of Rev. John McKemey 
Wilson. This House is Six Miles East of Charlotte. 






Amusements of the Settlers of Mecklenburg. — County Muster and 
Assembles. — Horse Racing and Betting.-^Liquor Used Freely 
at Home and at Public Places. — The Old Taverns and Their 

The amusements of the first people who lived in this 
county differed in many respects from those of the present 
generation. The women and the children were, perhaps, 
the most destitute part of the population in this respect. The 
men, at least the great majority of them, would attend the 
neighborhood musters of their companies and the county 
musters of their regiment, which assemblies were, during 
the first years of our history, composed almost wholly of 
men. ' In later years, the women and children sometimes 
attended these assemblies, but the custom developed at a 
comparatively late date. 

The muster of the early days was nominally a military 
assembly, but it also had its social and political aspects. The 
small number of churches, as well as the infrequent meet- 
ings for worship, tended to make the muster days almost 
the only days the greater part of the population had for 
social intercourse and the discussion of political questions. 
During the first years of our history, such questions as the 
McCulloh land question, the boundary dispute, the vestry 
arid marriage acts, the regulation, and other questions of 
Colonial politics, were discussed at these meetings.. Besides 
affording the people a means of social and political discus- 
sion, from the nature of existing conditions, the musters 
served to supply the absence of the newspaper, there being 
no local newspaper in this county for the first fifty years of 
its history. 

County courts and the annual election for members of the 
Provincial Assembly, all held at the county seat, also served 
tp bring the leading men of the county together for the ex- 


change of ideas and for purposes of social intercourse. The 
several musters, county courts and elections, together with 
the occasional meetings held in all parts of the county for 
public worship, afforded our ancestors opportunities for 
knowing each other which many of this day do not enjoy. 
Add to all these, «too, the frequent visits of many of the 
people to Charleston, Philadelphia, and other markets, and 
the bringing back to this section of the best newspapers and 
other publications of that day, and we find that the people 
who lived here more than a hundred years ago are not to be 
pitied so very much on the plea that they were isolated from 
the rest of the world. Even the older boys occasionally went 
to Charleston, which was an event long to be remembered. 
Some of them, too, attended the meetings, while all the chil- 
dren generally received some months of "schooling'' for two 
or three years of their early youth. But the early times 
were such that nature and necessity were the school masters 
that were ever present in this section, to develop the latent 
powers in every boy and girl. 

The diversions of the men ipartook somewhat of the rude 
nature oi their surroundings. Horse-racing, long bullets, 
shooting matches, and like sports engaged the attention of 
the majority. *'Long bullets" was a game played with a 
large iron ball. There were two goals. The work of those 
near one goal was to prevent the ball rolled in their direction 
from passing their goal, the winning side being that one 
which could succeed in rolling the ball with enough force to 
pass the adversary's line. One of the first ordinances of 
Charlotte prohibited this game from being played in the 
streets of the town. 

But one of the old customs which has long since passed 
away here, but which still exists in parts of Scotland, was 
the custom of having "liquor at the funeral." The life of 
this custom was prolonged in this section by the fact that 
the people were settled far apart, and an excuse for refresh- 
ments at the graveyard, after the funeral, could be made on 
the ground that the friends had gathered from long dis-' 
tances and should be sent away only after having been re- 


V1 ^^ 

s| ^ >:> ^ ^ 



freshed. The prevalence of this custom of having ''liquor 
at the funeral'' may be inferred when it is stated that almost 
every estate settled in this country up to, and for sometime 
after, 1800, contained an item for funeral whiskey, paid out 
of the assets of the estate in the same way as other funeral 
expenses are now paid. 

''Liquor at the funeral" was not necessarily the liquor 
drank by those who kept watch over the dead body before it 
was buried, but the spirits consumed at a dinner which was 
spread at the church or graveyard after the funeral ceremo- 
nies were over, consisting of cakes, bread, cheese, wine, whis- 
key or rum. The amount of whiskey consumed varied ac- 
cording to circumstances. As early as 1767, seven gallons 
and more were consumed on one funeral occasion, costing five 
shillings per gallon. Wine was more expensive, costing 
ten shillings per gallon. Sometimes rum instead of whis- 
key and wine was used, indicating that the dead man was 
in his lifetime in more comfortable circumstances than one 
whose funeral dinner was set with only corn whiskey as a 

Another occasion for the consumption of whiskey was 
the "vendue," or sale of a dead man's estate. "Whiskey for 
the vendue" was as necessary a part of the expenses of an 
administrator in settling an estate as was the funeral whis- 
key. Here, again, the amount consumed depended on cir- 
cumstances. If the amount of property sold was large, the 
whiskey bill was large accordingly. If little property was 
sold, only a small crowd being attracted hither, then the bill 
for spirits was small in proportion. 

While horse-racing and long bullets seem to have been 
indulged in by only a part of the population, whiskey drink- 
ing was a general custom before 1800. Rev. Alexander 
had his punch bowl and glasses among the effects sold at his 
sale. Nearly every teacher, of which any record now re- 
mains, was sometime or other charged with whiskey by some 
one of those who patronized his school. But whiskey drink- 
ing and intemperance were not then synonymous terms to 
the extent thev are now. 


Betting at horse races was the custom. And while bet- 
ting and gambling were permitted, there is evidence that 
profanity was criminal, being frequently punished by the 
county courts. The meagreness of the court records before 
1 774 prevents a statement as to the punishment accorded such 
offenses before that time, but after that time there are num- 
bers of instances where men were fined various amounts for 
"swearing profanely." An interesting feature of such 
records is that they always state the number of oaths 
the culprit was charged with "swearing profanely," the 
gravity of the offense seeming to be measured by the 

The making and sale of spirituous liquors was, of course, 
as general as their consumption. They who hired whiskey 
made in the early days paid the distiller six pence per gallon. 
Nearly every leading man in the county owned a distillery. 
Such an institution was almost as much a part of the equip- 
ment of a plantation as the plows and other farming imple- 
ments. There seems never to have been, in the early days, 
an excise duty on the sale of whiskey at the place of ite 
manufacture, but there was such a duty on all those who 
kept taverns, ordinaries, and places of amusement. 

But there was a reason for the existence of a distillery on 
almost every farm during the first period of our history, 
which, leaving out of all consideration other reasons, fully 
accounts for the phenomenon, viz : the distance people were 
situated from markets for their simple products of corn, rye 
and fruit. It was much more convenient to market the sur- 
plus products in liquid form than in bulk, and the returns 
were larger and surer. 

No picture of the social life of the first period of our his- 
tory would be complete without some reference to the tav- 
erns which were kept in all parts of the country from the ear- 
liest days of its history. These institutions sprang up along 
all the public roads, and in the town of Charlotte after 1768. 
The number of persons always passing through this section 
to the South must have been considerable, even as early as 
1760. The tavern was a place where such travelers could 


1 1 1 




be provided for over night. "A public house/' or a tavern, 
also meant a place where spirituous liquors were sold. If 
we are to judge by the bills these tavern-keepers rendered 
their customers, we shall gain an adequate idea of the kind 
of entertainment furnished, as well as the cost of it. In all 
of these houses the punch bowl was an ever present institu- 
tion. Such drinks as "Stued wine," "toddy," rum "slings," 
and the like, were served. In compounding these drinks the 
tavern-keepers used whiskey of local manufacture, as well 
as West India rum. Continental rum, claret, Madeira arid 
Teneriffe wine, domestic and imported beer, and domestic 
and imported cider.. 



First Settlers Used Pennsylvania and Vir^nia Currency. — Paper 
Money Discounted Nearly One-third. — Many Kinds of Coins 
Used. — Federal Currency Established in 1792. 

The first settlers of this county came from Virginia and 
Pennsylvania and, of course, brought the currency of those 
States with them, which was, no doubt, the first paper money 
in circulation in this section. But some of these settlers 
brought gold and silver as well as the paper currency. The 
" hard money'' qf that day, as it was called, consisted of 
English and Spanish and German coins, and in rare in- 
stances coins of French mintage. In 1763, George Cathey, 
who first lived in Pennsylvania and then in Maryland and 
afterwards came to North Carolina, loaned Jean Cathay 
"ten silver dollars,'' valued at four pounds English money, 
and "one Dubloone in gold," valued at six pounds of the 
same currency. At Henry Eisenhart's sale, in 1764, one 
"half Johannes" was valued at two pounds and seven shill- 
ings, as money was then reckoned in this province. 

After the settlers found their way to the markets of Char- 
leston, South Carolina, currency became somewhat common 
in this section, especially about the year 1770. But even 
with the progress of the trade with Charleston, the volume 
of money was not sufficient for the needs of the growing 
popuplation. Chief Justice Hasell, who held Salisbury court 
in the Spring of 1766, said that there was "scarce any specie 
circulating among the people of this section, not enough to 
pay the stamp duties, should that odious act be enforced." 

The value of the North Carolina proclamation, or paper 
currency, varied in value at different times prior to 1776. 
In 1767, it was valued at two-thirds its face value in sterling. 
It seems that this money never decreased much below thirty- 
three and one-third per cent, during the period that this 


Puriiiiiint to the la»t ^rill ofmrso* O. 

l>lHhkfis tft^^l , I will Nirer l^krMlc. on tlif Uttlh urM £t1hl an^ iif 
Owlvbtr iKit, 4it the In if* tlvtMLim 1t*ih*r *.i .-,^\t( tl«'«^^J 

% large s«tock of Caltlc, 
M MMoffH and Sheep^ 

f A qiiuiitity of ('OK>, 

TVIiiutt, Oath, r^ofUhr A* niifh 

Cine Cotton Gin & Getiring'it 

One Uiitf^li Fain, 

On<> Ci>j,s^ iin«l llnrncNM. 

1 Roiid %%'ua:on immI Fn r hi insr Tools 

of i'%t*i*^v <l(*<«i'i*i|it«i>n, 

llouKcliolil Fiii'iiitiire^ 

ifl^^iLlii'T 1*1 til n huntltrr oj' oihi'r ^iiihtnlpli- urilrlf** tiMt I'fititK^ir^ilrtt, | 
A vrt^lit will \u uiviriiHniitL fiJrlU«r |U(f f^f ulur^ U'^ krinttti im ttit: 

S«iniiiol Cux^ 



county was under the royal authority, except in 1773, when 
it decreased almost fifty per cent. The inadequate currency 
was a matter of much concern to our local politicians before 

1776, and they often introduced bills in the Colonial Assem- 
bly to make taxes payable in certain commodities, thereby 
hoping to lighten the burdens of the poorer class and render 
the collection of taxes more easy. But no such bill ever be- 
came a law of the Province. 

Before January, 1772, James Wylie, who had been sheriff 
of this county died. The inventory of his estate showed 
that he had in his possession fifty-six "half Joes" Johan- 
neses), each valued at sixty-four shillings in currency; eight 
guineas, each valued at thirty-six shillings; six ^'pistoles,'' 
valued at twenty-eight shillings; two ''chickeens/' valued 
at fourteen shillings; one ''Maidon," valued at forty- 
six shillings; and four "Doubloon J' each valued at 
one hundred and twelve shillings. The total value of this 
"hard money'' was £266 i6s., "Total of gold as the same 
passes here January, 1772." The administrator of the 
estate of Solomon Elliott, in 1775, returned cash on hand as 
follows : Forty-nine half Johanneses, seven and one-half 
guineas, three pistoles, one "maidon," one "Caroline,'' one 
hundred and three dollars, or £38 I2,s. 6d., and £206 lis. 
Pennsylvania currency, or £698 i6s. 9d. North Carolina 
Currency. Elliott was a merchant wbo lived somewhere* 
within the bounds of New Providence congregation. 

With the change of the government from King to people, 

1777, the old proclamation money was made legal tender for 
a definite period, and hence that currency remained here and 
many people paid debts with it until as late as 1780. All 
through the years 1775 and 1776, notes were drawn 
payable in that money. By the inventory of Samuel Gin- 
gles returned to the county court in January, 1777, it appears 
that this man left in cash £25 South Carolina currency, £40 
Continental currency, £82 North Carolina currency, one 
"Doubloone," and five Spanish milled dollars. In July, 
1 781, Robert McDoweH's personal estate was valued at £179 
19s. in hard money and 171 5 paper dollars." When this 


estate was finally settled in 1790, it took eigfht hundred 
dollars to make one of "hard money," which indicates how 
worthless our National and State paper currrency had be- 

During the period from 1780 to 1783, the money lenders 
in this county most always drew their notes payable in "hard 
money" or in "gold or silver." In 1783, several payments 
were confessed before John McKnitt Alexander, in which 
"half Johannes were to Rente at three pound five shillings; 
dollars at eight shillings." Beginning in 1782, and contin- 
uing until 1793, it was the usual custom to reckon twelve 
and one-half cents as a shilling, eight shillings to the dollar. 
So when pounds are spoken of during that period, it must be 
remembered that one pound was two dollars, and not the old 
sterling value of something like five dollars. 

But English money did not cease to be a part of our cur- 
rency with the close of the Revolution. Many of the people 
of this section still used the money of the mother country 
long after that conflict had ended. In 1785, John Mc- 
Cutcheon gave his note for sixty-one pounds "sterling," 
guineas to be reckoned at twenty-one shillings and nine 
pence, dollars at four shillings eight pence, the whole to be 
paid in "hard money." In the same year McCutcheon, who 
was a merchant, gave another note payable in "half Joes," 
at three pounds four shillings each, indicating that the old 
currency silver and gold still circulated in this county at that 

In 1768, $3,870 in Continental currency was valued in 
returning the value of an estate to the county court at only 
three pounds, or about six dollars in gold. In 1794, the 
executors of Edward Erwin said they had in their possession 
"a Bill of Virginia money of twelve hundred dollars, which 
we have not been able to dispose of." In 1791, Matthew 
Walker exchanged a "gold guinea" with David Flow in 
some business transaction. In October, 1792, Robert Irwin 
bought 1,084 Continental dollars at the sale of Wm. Whit- 
sett, who lived in the town of Charlotte, paying three pounds 
nineteen shillings for the same. In the same year John 

CONTRACT, 1767. 



Whitsides bought 7557 dollars of the same currency at the 
sale of Moses Swanne, of Charlotte, and paid fourteen 
pounds twelve shillings for them. 

From 1790 to 1800, many notes were drawn payable in 
"Spanish milled dollars." Others were drawn payable in 
"half Joes," and others in "silver dollars." During this 
period, owing to the establishment of a Federal currency in 
1792, in which the dollar was made to consist of ten dimes, 
the people here began to draw notes in which £100 was reck- 
oned to be $200, ten "shillings" to the dollar. But the cus- 
tom of calling ten cents a "shilling" did not become general, 
and the shilling of twelve and one-half cents continued in 
favor for several years after the beginning of the Nineteenth 



Miscellaneous Information Summarized in Paragraphs. — The March 
of Mecklenburg Troops to Hillsboro. — Governor Tryon's Visit 
in the County. — Sentiment Pertaining to the Regulators and the 

1. On Sunday, September 25th, Rev. Mr. Suter and Rev. 
Henry Patillo preached to the Rowan and Mecklenburg bat- 
talions in camp at Hillsboro. 

2. On September 28th, " the officers and soldiers of the 
Rowan and Mecklenburg Brigade wrote to Adjutant Gen- 
eral and Major of Brigade, desiring them in their behalf to 
wait on His Excellency, and in the most dutiful and respect- 
ful terms to express their happiness and entire satisfaction 
in having this day His Excellency's thanks for their be- 
havior since they have been employed on this service, adding 
their most ardent wishes for His Excellency's speedy re- 

3. The march of the Mecklenburg and Rowan battalions 
from Hillsboro back to Salisbury was made under the com- 
mand of Colonel Osborne. Colonel Osborne carried back 
with him a pardon for the insurgents, which he read at the 
head of the brigade when it arrived at Salisbury, and posted 
a copy of it on the court house door. The conditions of the 
pardon were that the insurgents were to give bond and se- 
curity to pay all their taxes by a certain day and agree not 
in the future to obstruct any public officer in the execution of 
his office. The principal insurgents, however, were not to 
be pardoned, but tried in the courts for their offenses. 

4. At a council of war, held at Hillsboro on September 
22, 1768, Colonel Robt. Harris, Lieutenant-Colonel Moses 
Alexander, Major John Phifer and Captain Thomas Polk, 
Mecklenburg's member of the Assembly, were present. 

5. The Mecklenburg battalion, which began the march 



to Hillsboro, from Major Phifer's, on September 12, 1768, 
consisted of one colonel, one lieutentant-colonel, one major, 
seven captains, eight lieutentants, eight ensigns, one adju- 
tant, one quartermaster, fifteen sergeants, seven corporals, 
seven drummers, and two hundred and fifty-three privates, 
making a total force of three hundred and ten men. The 
total expenses of the Mecklenburg battalion were £1854 9s. 
6d., of which sum Colonel Moses Alexander was paid £608 
23. 6d., proclamation money. 

6. Mecklenburg furnished for the 1768 expedition against 
the Regulators, a force of three hundred and ten men, out of 
a total of 1 461, raised to quell the disturbance. The total 
expenses of the expedition were £4844 19s. 3d., proclama- 
tion money. 

7. On Sunday, August 21, 1768, while Governor Tryon 
was the guest of Major John Phifer, he and Mr. Phifer at- 
tended a church where divine services were conducted' by 
Rev. Mr. Suter, a "Swiss or Dutch minister.'' The dis- 
course enjoined all to obey the laws of the country. 

8. The North Carolina Assembly of November, 1768, ex- 
pressed its conviction of the necessity of the action of Tryon 
in assembling soldiers at Hillsboro in September of that year, 
expressed its detestation of the proceedings of the insur- 
gents, extending its thanks to Gov. Tryon for quelling the 
insurrection, and promised as soon as the finances would 
permit, to pay the expenses of those soldiers who had 
marched against the insurgents. 

9. The powder burned at Phifer's Hill was not powder 
that Gov. Tryon had procured in Charleston, but powder 
that Colonel Moses Alexander had bought there, as Com- 
missary of the Mecklenburg and Rowan Volunteers. 

10. David Caldwell was one of the leading men in the 
Rocky River section and an elder at Rocky River Presbyte- 
rian Church. Many of the other names signed to the request 
for the pardon of the "black boys of Cabarrus" will be 
recognized as the names of men who at one time or another 
have played a considerable part in the history of the county. 


Their statement of the facts about this episode, leaving out 
their "obsequious loyalty," ought to commend itself to all 
lovers of truth as an authentic presentation of the matter. 

11. To show that the Regulation did not gain any appre- 
ciable headway in this county, it may be remembered that 
the sheriffs of Rowan and Anson were at a later date em- 
powered, on account of the Regulation troubles, to collect 
back taxes for the year 1770. No Mecklenburg sheriff ever 
asked for the passage of such an act of relief. Hence, it is 
to be presumed that whatever taxes were not collected here 
were not collected for causes others than those attending the 
Regulation troubles. 

12. As the name of Edmund Fanning is connected with 
Mecklenburg history, in connection with Queen's College, 
and that connection may be thought strange, in view of all 
that has been said about him in North Carolina histories, it 
may be interesting to note here that the Assembly proceed- 
ings of January 25, 1771, Vol. VIII., page 461, of the 
Colonial Records, recites that Fanning had been charged 
with many things injurious to his character. It is said 
that the House had inquired into those charges and after 
the strictest examination found the several accusations to 
be "false, wretched and malicious, arising from the malevo- 
lence of a set of insurgents, who style themselves Regula- 
tors." Captain Alexander was on the committee that in- 
vestigated Fanning* s conduct. 

13. It is well known that the sentiment of many North 
Carolinians, by the year 1772, had changed in regard to 
the Regulators. August 30th, 1772, Governor Josiah Mar- 
tin wrote Lord Hillsborough that he had lately visited 
Orange, Guilford and Chatham counties, and said that as 
he went through Guilford County, the Regulators and Hun- 
ter, their leader among them, came to him in great penitence 
and contrition and asked pardon. The Regulators claimed 
they had no intention of subverting the government and 
maintained that they had been misled. Martin says these 
people were barbariously ignorant beyond description, and 


that mercenary attorneys and other litttle officers had evi- 
deotly taken advantage of this ignorance. 

14. James McCaul, the Regulator, whose advertisement is 
said to have been the occasion of the meeting referred to by 
James Ashmore in his confession, was an Anson County 


NOTES ON CHAPTER II. (The Indiana.) 

Items Regarding Important Events.— Very Few Relics Found in 
Mecklenburg. — Correspondence Between Governors of North 
Caxolina and South Carolina Respecting the Catawba. 

1. The occasion of the Indians going to Salisbury and 
insulting the Chief Justice and disturbing the court was 
this : A band of the Catawbas was returning from Virginia, 
where they had gone to take part in one of the campaigris of 
the French and Indian war.. These Indians robbed a wagon 
and tied the wagoner with his own chain. The whites fol- 
lowed the Indians and recovered the stolen goods, which 
so incensed the Indians that they acted in the manner indi- 
cated above. 

2. The Indian remains in this section present no special 
peculiarities, except that there are evidences at one or two 
points of the work of mound builders. Mr. A. Nixon, of 
Lincolnton, N. C, has several ornaments like those usually 
found in localities where these prehistoric peoples are known 
to have lived. Mr. Nixon has several ornamented pipes 
and other interesting relics, collected near Hardin, N. C, 
and Iron Station, N. C, in the territory which lies between 
the South Fork and the Catawba rivers. 

3. Robert Campbell and Thomas Keasey were the two 
white men wounded at Fort Dobbs in February, 1760. Both 
of these men were pensioned by the Colonial Assembly, 
Campbell finally being sent back to England, the Assembly 
paying his passage. 

4. The Catawba Indians had, in 1755, two hundred and 
forty to three hundred warriors, with King Hagler at their 
head. In 1760, smallpox reduced the number of warriors 
to sixty. Governor Dobbs says that besides the sixty war- 
riors, there were left after the smallpox epidemic ended, 
sixty old men and boys and a "suitable number of women." 
If these figures are reliable, it will be seen that the Catawba 






tribe must have been reduced by disease, in 1760, by about 
four-fifths its size in 1755. This also accounts for the fact 
that the Catawbas were not heard of as an Indian power 
after 1760, and may account, too, for some of their friendli- 
ness. towards the whites after that date. 

5. Governor Dobbs, writing to Gk)vemor Boone of South 
Carolina, July 6, 1762, says: "Mr. Samuel Wily arrived 
here and informs me he had directions from Mr. Bull to run 
out lines of the lands alotted for the Catawba Nation, a tract 
fifteen miles square, commencing at the Southward from 12 
mile Creek to the Northward 15 miles from the East to West 
7 miles and a half on each side of Catawba River, pursuant, 
as he says, to an agreement made with the Catawba Nation 
about a year ago between Mr. Atkins, agent for Indian 
affairs, with King Hagler, and Hagler, with these Indians 
have arrived here the same day upon the same account. 

"It does not a little surprise me to find that Mr. Atkins 
should have peremptorily have taken upon him to have fixed 
so large a tract of land to them without first acquainting me 
with it, as there is the highest probability that all these lands 
will be within the province by the parallelled lines which 
will determine our boundary, without even showing his 
power to me of determining it, without His Majesty's ap- 
probation or consulting the Government of this Province, 
and still more so in never having communicated his agree- 
ment to me since he concluded it. 

"And this survey, if perfected would ascertain the Ca- 
tawbas' claim hereafter and would at present occasion much 
confusion among those who had taken warrants and patents 
upon these lands. For upon the Indians' removal from 
Sugar Creek Town to 12-Mile Creek, many of the lands 
northward from Sugar Town have been surveyed and some 
patents isssued, as I appprehended upon their removal, they 
had chosen and accepted of other lands, more southerly, and 
more so as to their number of warriors have been reduced 
in a few years, by Hagler's confession, from three hundred 
to fifty, and all their mtales don't exceed onfe hundred old! 
and young included, as they are now scarce a Nation; the 


lands alotted to them since their reduction by Mr. Atkin is 
144,000 acres. 

"As the Catawba's have behaved well, though their num- 
bers are reduced, I would agree to their having a large tract 
and proportion of land, and would not think it imprudent to 
advise His Majesty to allow them a tract 12 miles square, 
which would contain 96,000 acres, a sufficient quantity for 
so small a number." 

"Bounds might be limited between 12-Mile Creek and 
Sugar Creek on the east side of Catawba and as much more 
to the westward as shall make up the complement, till His 
Majesty's approbation is obtained, and therefore at present 
should advise that the surrounding lines should be suspended 
and only the distance run from 12-Mile Creek to Sugar 
Creek, to ascertain that distance, and in the meantime I 
shall suspend the issuing of any more patents within that 
limit, and think it reasonable that Captain Steward, who 
succeeds Mr. Atkins should send me a copy of Mr. Atkins' 
power, by which he is acting in fixing their limits without 
His Majesty's approbation or the consent of this Province, 
and then when the limits are ascertained no private purchase 
should be allowed, though their numbers should diminish, 
without the approbation of the Government of the Province, 
in which the lands may lay, and the General consent of the 
Catawba Nation." 

The above besides being interesting as bearing on the 
general history of the Catawbas, is especially interesting as 
mentioning the original town of the Catawbas, on Sugar 
Creek. Tradition has not even located that original capital 
of the Indian Nation, and it is perhaps now useless to try 
to locate it with any degree of certainty. It is enough for us 
to remember that this town or original capital of the Ca- 
tawbas was on big Sugar Creek, somewhat nearer the pres- 
ent town of Charlotte, perhaps, than it was distant from the 
final location of the capital on the southern border of this 

6. Lawson, in his description of this section in the year 
1 701, speaks of the "Sugaree" Indians, as well as the Ca- 








''^ ^#^^^4N^£: 



tawbas. In view of what Governor Dobbs says, in 1762, 
and in view of the whole history of the Indians of this sec- 
tion, the opinion may be advanced that the Sugarees were a 
branch of the Catawbas (Kadapaws in Lawson's vernacu- 
lar), and were finally absorbed t^ them, the name remaining 
in the stream on which their principal settlement was situ- 



Ck>ming of Rev. Hugh McAden. — Rev. Alexander Craighead With- 
draws from the Presbyterian Synod and Comes to North Caro- 
lina.— Established Church of England Met With Much Discour- 
agement in Mecklenburg. 

Rev. Hugh McAden began his trip South with Lancaster 
county, Pennsylvania, as a starting point, June 3, 1755. The 
second Sunday in June he was at Rock Spring where he met 
Rev. James Campbell, who the next year came to North 
Carolina, to the Cape Fear section, and has the distinction 
of being the first resident Presbyterian minister in the col- 
ony, whose name has come down to us. Mr. McAden 
crossed the Potomac on June 16, went to Winchester and 
came South through the Shenandoah Valley. He preached 
at the forks of the James river on the second Sunday in July, 
and on Wednesday following at the house of a friend, he 
heard the lamentable story of Braddock's defeat by the In- 
dians and French. The whole country was thrown into con- 
fusion, which increased with the stories of Indian murders 
on the frontier. Braddock's defeat and the danger appar- 
ently threatening the people of the Valley, sent many fam- 
ilies to the more peaceful sections of North Carolina. Rev. 
Alexander Craighead, whose congregation on the "Cow 
Pasture" had probably been entirely scattered from their 
homes, was one of those who came to North Carolina on this 

Mr. McAden considered whether he should return to 
Pennsylvania or should continue his journey. He writes: 
"I resolved to prosecute my journey, come what will, with 
some degree of dependence upon the Lord for his divine pro- 
tection and support, that I might be able to glorify Him in 
all things, whether in life or death." He preached the first 
Sunday in August in North Carolina. Soon afterwards he 



preached most acceptably to the people at the Baptist Yearly 
Meeting, in what is now Granville county. 

Rev. Alexander Craighead was one of the charter mem- 
bers of the Presbytery of Hanover, Virginia, formed by the 
Synod of New York, in 1755. He came of a race of Pres- 
byterian preachers in Scotland and Ireland where the name 
is an honorable one among the Church archives. He came 
from the Presbytery of Donegal, in the old country, and 
joined the Synod of Philadelphia in 1736. In 1746. he was 
accused of unusual methods in his evangelistic services, but 
was able to appeal so successfully to the sympathy of the 
community that the Presbytery could not bring the case to 
an issue. He withdrew from the Synod with eleven others^ 
in 1 841, forming the "New Side'' Presbytery of Brunswick. 
Then he dropped out of the records for a time, being, as is 
supposed, associated with the great Whitfield in his labors in 

In 1743, Thomas Cookson, one of His Majesty's justices 
in Pennsylvania, brought in a complaint to the Synod of a 
certain paper, attributed to Alexander Craighead, a Pres- 
byterian minister. It will be noted that Mr. Craighead now 
belonged to the opposite party from the Synod. The Synod 
set aside all other business to consider the paper, and the 
following record was made : "The above mentioned paper, 
with an affidavit concerning it, being read in open Synod, 
it was unanimously agreed that it was full- of treason, sedi- 
tion and distraction, and grievous perverting of the sacred 
oracles to the ruin of all society and government, and direct- 
ly and diametrically opposite to our religious principles; as 
we have on all occasions declared to the world; and we 
hereby unanimously and with the greatest sincerity declare 
that we detest this paper. And if Mr. Alexander Craig- 
head be the author, we know nothing of the matter ; and we 
hereby declare that he hath been no member of this society 
for some time past, nor do we acknowledge him as such, 
though we cannot but heartily lament that any man that 
was ever called a Presbyterian should be guilty of what is 
in this paper." In addition to this, the moderator, with 


three leading members, was appointed a committee to draw 
up an address to the Governor on the occasion. 

This seems a little hard on Mr. Craighead. Probably, 
thirty years afterwards, the members of the same Synod 
would have considered the paper a most patriotic document, 
when every Presbyterian minister and almost the whole body 
of the people were on the side of the colonies as against the 
crown and were preaching sedition and treason at every op- 

July 20, 1766, Rev. Mr. Reed, an Episcopal clergyman, 
writing from New Bern to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel, says: "Mr. Morton arrived here about the 
1 8th of last month from the northward and stayed with me 
to refresh himself a few days, then proceeded to Brunswick 
to wait upon the Governor and from thence intended to go 
to Mecklenburg county. But on his arrival at Brunswick, 
he was very creditably, and, I believe, very truly informed, 
that the inhabitants of that county evaded the Vestry Act 
by electing the most rigid dissenters for Vestrymen who 
would not quaify ; that the county abounded witn dissenters 
of various denominations and particularly with Covenant- 
ers, Seceders, Anabaptists and New Lights; that he would 
meet with a yery cold, if any reception at all, have few or 
no hearers and lead a very uneasy life." Governor Tryon 
took a more charitable and tolerant view of the religious 
conditions in this county and said to the same Society Octo- 
ber I, 1766: "I intend as a rule to myself to dispose of the 
ministers as they arrive into those counties where the inhabi- 
tants are most willing to receive them. Those of Mecklen- 
burg county are almost all Presbyterians. I have, therefore, 
sent Mr. Morton, at his own request, to Northampton coun- 
ty." On August 25, 1766, Mr. Morton himself wrote that 
he "was well informed that the inhabitants of Mecklen- 
burg are entire dissenters of the most rigid kind. That they 
had a solemn league and covenant teacher settled among 
them; that they were in general greatly averse to the Church 
of England, and that they looked upon a law lately enacted 
in this province for the better establishment of the Church 


as oppressive as the Stamp Act, and were determined to pre- 
vent its taking place there by opposing the settlement of any 
minister of the Church of England that might be sent among 
them." In 1766, it was said that Pennsylvania was the 
breeding place of sects ; that that colony sent down to this 
province all kinds of sects and among the number "gifted 
brethren/' or "New Lights." In 1767, Governor Tryon 
estimated the white taxables of Mecklenburg at 1,600, 
"mostly Presbyterians." 

It is not very probable that the Rev. Mr. Reed or the Rev. 
Mr. Morton' knew very much about the different classes of 
dissenters, the terms. Covenanters and Seceders, simply re- 
ferring to the Scotch antecedents of the Presbyterians, and 
"New Light," probably denoting the "New Side" branch 
of the Presbyterian Church, though the Old and New side 
had by this time been united. Nor is it probable that there 
were any "Anobaptists" in Mecklenburg in the historical 
sense of the word. There may have been some Baptists here 
as there were in other parts of the colony, and they always 
stood with the Presbyterians in their advocacy of civil and 
religious liberty. 

In January, 1771, the Assembly passed an act which the 
Governor wisely signed, and which took away one of the 
long-standing grievances of this section. It was introduced 
by Edmund Fanning, Thomas Polk being one of the special 
committee appointed to formulate the statute. It permitted 
regularly called Presbyterian ministers to solemnize the 
rites of marriage by publication in their assemblies or by 
license. Fanning reported that the restrictions put upon 
Presbyterian ministers worked great hardships, the people 
having been trained to prefer the ceremony celebrated by a 
minister to marriage by a justice of the peace. 

In 1770 Providence congregation established a church in 
the Clear Creek section for the convenience of those mem- 
bers who lived in that neighborhood, and this later on be- 
came the Philadelphia Church. 

There were some members of the Episcopal Church com- 
ing in with the English emigrants from the East, as is evi- 
dent from the mention of the Book of Prayer occasionally 


at the sale of libraries. In DeRosset's Church History of 
North Carolina, we find this statement: "Speaking of the 
marriage of dissenters by dissenting clergymen, Bishop 
Cheshire says: *It seems an ungracious provision of this 
law, meant to be an act of courtesy as well as of justice, to 
the growing settlements along the Yadkin and the Catawba, 
that it provided that the Episcopal minister in the parish 
where the marriage was performed should be entitled to the 
fee, if he had not refused to -periorm the service. This, how- 
ver, was of less consequence, as there was not a single min- 
ister in any parish in the province where a Presbyterian min- 
ister resided.' " 

Prior to 1767, the Germans of Cabarrus had a pastor at 
Coldwater, Mr. Suter, who preached there in August, 1768, 
when Governor Tryon was visiting at John Phifer's. This 
church on Coldwater was the first Reformed Church founded 
in North Carolina. About 1760, the Lutherans and Re- 
formed Germans built a log church in the present county of 
Catawba, near the present town of Newton, which they 
called St. Paul's. In 1764, this church was served by Mn 
Dupert. Paul Anthony and Henry Weidner (Whitner) 
were the prime movers in this church enterprise, which 
seems to have been the oldest church erected in Catawba 
county, in territory then regarded as belonging to Meck- 

On October 26, 1767, Matthew Floyd was granted a tract 
of land on the waters of the South Fork of the Catawba, 
joining the lands of Jonathan Potts and Peter Statler, "in- 
cluding a school house." This school house was built by 
the Lutherans and German Calvinists about 1765, and was 
also used for church purposes, being one of the oldest 
churches west of the Catawba river. On this spot are now 
situated two churches, five miles west of the present town of 
Lincolnton, the one a Lutheran and the other a Reformed 
church, which have been erected by the descendants of the 
pioneer inhabitants of that section which was once a part 
of Mecklenburg. This original union church was known as 
"school house" church until after 181 9, when its name be- 
came Daniel's Church. 



Historic An ticipationa— Discoveries in Florida — First Find in the 
County — Geology of Mecklenburg — Development of Mining^Sta- 
tistics of the Branch Mint in Charlotte. 

By George B. Hanna, E. M.* 

From the earliest entrance of the Spaniards into the terri- 
tory, now known as the United States, the question of the 
precious metals was always the foremost consideration. The 
large treasure found in Mexico and in Peru excited the 
cupidity of this avaricious race, and suggested the exist- 
ence of other stores in other parts of the New World. 

On entering Florida, the first inquiry was concerning 
gold. Native copper from the shores of Lake Superior, and 
probably also from the mountains of the Carolinas, as well 
as mica from this latter region, had been widely scattered to 
the South, Southwest and Southeast among the natives, the 
copper being used largely for tools, and the mica for orna- 

It is now quite certain from the results of modern exhu- 
mations in Florida and along the cost of the Gulf States, 
that nuggets of gold had also traveled thither from what we 
now call the Southern Appalachian gold region, and were 
used widely both for barter and for ornaments. 

The gold found in the exhumations has been assayed in 
late years, and found to correspond with the gold from the 
mountains of Georgia and of the Carolinas, and this indi- 
cation of origin is confirmed by the physical appearance of 
the nuggets. 

It is not probable that De Soto or his immediate followers 
ever penetrated the Appalachian mountains, but scattered 
parties of his followers apparently did, as evidenced by their 

♦Prepared by Prof. Hanna especially for this boolc 


frequent allusions to these mountains and rivers under 
names variously spelled by the early Spanish chroniclers. 
The Altamaha river, for instance, became a familiar name 
as a source of gold. An early traveler even went so far as 
to picture the rude way which the natives in the region of 
the Altamaha had in panning, or rather concentrating, the 
fine particles of gold — a method' totally unknown at the 
present time among our miners — an agitation with air or 
water in hollow tubes of cane. 

The earliest American miners of the nineteenth century 
have denied that the Indians ever practiced the collection of 
the fine gold'; their extremest skill went no farther than the 
securing of nuggets and coarse gold, which could be picked 
out with the fingers. 

The vast collections of the Spaniards held the world spell- 
bound, and when the English came to this country, they, too, 
gave their attention to the possible occurrence of the pre- 
cious metals, though cupidity was held in subjection to the 
practical aims of the settlers; gold was only an incidental 
end. Sir Walter Raleigh, in his assignment of territorial 
rights, reserved to himself one-fifth of the gold and silver 
that might be discovered. 

The immigrants to the Piedmont section of the Carolinas, 
as soon as securely settled, began to hunt for gold. Several 
points are known where prospecting was carried on more 
than 125 years ago. Among these was the Aborigines 
shaft at the Brewer mine in Chesterfield county, S. C, 
and the Oliver mine in Gaston county, near the Catawba 
river, from which an old German miner was frightened 
away by the approach of Cornwallis' troops. 


The search was finally rewarded. The little son of Con- 
rad Reed, of Cabarrus county, in 1799, found a large nugget 
at the Reed mine, and soon thereafter, and continuing till the 
present time, other nuggets of varying sizes have been 
mined, and soon after nuggets were found at the locality 


afterwards known as the Dunn mine, near Rozzel's Ferry, 
in Mecklenburg county ; and as at the Reed mine, the charac- 
ter of the nuggets was not suspected, and they were used by 
the local gunsmiths for the ignoble purpose of "bushing" 

The spirit of discovery spread, and by 1821 the known 
producing area in North Carolina was, according to Olm- 
sted, 1,000 square miles in extent, reaching from Montgom- 
ery county and Anson (including Union county, not then 
set off), in the east to Gaston county in the west, and to Guil- 
ford county in the north; a distinct race of native profes- 
sional "gold hunters'* had arisen, which steadily enlarged 
the limits of producing territory. 

The date of the opening of the first mine is unknown to 
the writer, but it is supposed that the McCombs mine was 
the first. In Professor Mitchell's report in 1826, two mines, 
the McCombs and the Capps, are indicated' on the accompa- 
nying map as in full work in Mecklenburg county, and from 
the description, the McCombs mine seems to have been well 
equipped for that period. This mine is one mile west of 
Charlotte, and later was known as the Old Charlotte, and 
still more recently as the St. Catherine mine. 


The eastern part of Mecklenburg county shows argillite 
or clay slate, and the western, bordering on Gaston, has 
granite, or more properly speaking, gneiss; the interior part 
from north to south, is an area of confused material, which 
may show in a small hand specimen several varieties of 
rock. Dikes everywhere seam the country, and both dikes 
and the formation which they penetrate are altered and per- 
oxidized, and softened to a surprising depth. The area, 
in its longitudinal extension from northeast to southwest, 
was designated by Professor Emmons as the "Salisbury 
and Greensboro granite;" it can only be called granite by a 
very considerable degree of accommodation, for it contains a 
heavy proportion of hornblende, pyroxene, chlorite and epi- 


dote. It is probably among the most primitive rocks on the 
American continent, and apparently antedated the intro- 
duction of the earliest life, as it has not, in the writer's 
knowledge, shown the smallest fossil. The history of opin- 
ion among the geologists of this immediate belt of which 
Mecklenburg forms a conspicuous part, is extremely curious. 
Olmsted, Mitchell, and Rothe, all eminent men, early exam- 
ined it; Olmsted (1821) thought it to be argillite, (clay 
slate); Rothe (1826) regarded it as granite and gneiss; 
Mitchell (1826) was more cautious, and fluctuated between 
the two. Professor Eaton thought it to be talcose slate. 
Professor Emmons, State Geologist of North Carolina, 
called it (1856) the igneous or pyrocrystalline formation. 
Professor Kerr, a most careful observer (Geology of North 
Carolina, vol. i, page 123, 1875,) says, "the characteristic 
and prevalent rocks are syenyte, doleryte, greenstone, am- 
phibolyte, granite, porphyry and trachyte." Other observ- 
ers, however, place the formation high up in the geological 
column. Nitze, (Bulletin No. 10, North Carolina Geological 
Survey, 1897, P^g^ ^S)* designates the rock as "devitrified 
ancient colcanics, (rhyolite, quartz-porpryry, etc., and 
pyro-clastic breccias ; igneous plutonic rock, granite, diorite, 
diabase, etc.'') 

The formation is everywhere pierced by trap dikes, which 
in weathering have, near the surface, been peroxidized and 
mingled confusedly with the weathered material of the for- 
mation proper, down to a depth in some instances of 100 feet. 
Becker has aptly called this material "Saprolite," or rotten 
rock (16 Annual Report United States Geological Survey, 
part III, 1894-95, pages 289 and 290.) 

It is evident that a name at once descriptive and compre- 
hensive is lacking, and probably will be lacking till either 
the United States or the State Geological Survey takes the 
matter up, and deals with the material by careful field work, 
supplemented by the most extensive chemical and microscop- 
ical examination in the laboratory. 

There is very little true stratification, but some stratifica- 
tion due to dynamic metamorphism. 



History of Mining in Mecki^enburg. 113 

It may be added that it is not known that a fossil has ever 
been found in the country. The identification of the forma- 
tion depends on mineralog^cal characters, or the strati- 
graphy, and to some extent on the associations. 


The late Dr. F. A. Genth, a very close observer and an 
indefatigable student, gives the following list of minerals 
found in Mecklenburg county : 

Malachite, azurite, chalcopyrite, chrysocoUa, bornite, 
copper glance, cuprite, chalcotrichite, barnhardtite, mela- 
conite, native copper, galenite, lead, monazite, diamond, 
leopardite, rutile, misaeous iron ore, magnetite, chalybite, 
soapstone, sphalerite, gold, silver, platinum, mica, granite, 
quartz, amethyst, graphite, arsenic, (mineralized), arsenic, 
(native), antimony, (mineralized), antimony, (native), 
cobalt, (mineralized), nickel, (mineralized). 

Few of these are of commercial importance. Iron ore has 
been found sporadically over the entire county. Micaceous 
iron ore (or specular iron, or red hematite), of high grade 
and purity are found widely scattered, but in small quantity. 
Magnetic iron ore is found in Steel Creek township on the 
plantation of Dr. Strong, near Center A. R. P. church, in 
several narrow veins, also at Hopewell, and near the old 
Rock Island Factory, on the Catawba; specular hematite is 
also found in the north part of the county, near Davidson 
College. A great deal of labor has been given in prospecting 
for iron; an occasional vein or rather seam has been found, 
but ore in commercial quantity is not known. Chalybite 
occurs very sparingly at most gold mines. 

Copper minerals were long dreaded by the gold miners, 
and especially by the mill men, who thought, and with some 
reason, that this element prevented the collection of the 
gold in the amalgamating process. The mining population 
learning about 1854, of the discovery of workable ores of 
copper in other parts of the State, especially in Guilford 
county, prospected most diligently for similar ores in this 

114 History of Mecklenburg County. 

county. Large workable deposits were not found except in 
two or three instances ; occasionally, as at the Cathey mine, 
the Rogers, the Crosby, and the Ray mines, pockets of cop- 
per have been f oimd rich enough for a separate and a smelt- 
ing treatment; in every mine the small amounts of auriferous 
ores mined in regular work, have been sorted out till an 
accumulation of such material has justified shipment to 
smelting works, usually to Boston, Baltimore, or Swansea, 
No further special treatment on a large scale has ever been 
given to this class of ores, and none are now mined. Lead 
and silver ores are sometimes found, but never in quantities 
to attract attention. The gold ores invariably contain a small 
proportion of silver. Zinc ore (sphalerite) is still more 

Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, tellurium, etc., mineral- 
ized arsenic, antimony and bismuth, sometimes occur in the 
auriferous sulphurets in minute percentages; metallic arse- 
nic and antimony have been reported. The occurrence of 
tellurets, etc., is doubtful. 

Monazite and rutite have been found in placer work con- 
centrated with the gold. Mica is sparingly, but widely dis- 
tributed wherever granite rocks occur, but it is rarely found 
in pieces large enough for industrial purposes. Graphite 
(black lead), is found in small quantities as an accessory in 
most mines of the county. Amethyst and quartz crystals 
are frequently met with, but few of notable value have been 

Cobalt and nickel in very small percentages occur in the 
McGinn mine; the former occasionally as peach blossom ore 
(erythrite), and both metals are occasionally found as an 
accidental constituent of the auriferous sulphurets; their 
occurrence has hitherto proved of no industrial importance. 

Granite and other building minerals and material are 
found along the Catawba river, and near the Iredell line, and 
in patches in various parts of the country, but they have 
rarely found a use out of the immediate neighborhood in 
which they are found. 

Soapstone of an impure variety occurs locally in many 

History of Mining in M^cki.e;nburg. 115 

places, and has found an important local use in the con- 
struction of fireplaces and chimneys. 

Limestone and gypsum in commercial quantity are want- 
ing. Marls and phosphates are unknown. 

Leopardite is found near the factory settlement now called 
Belmont. It extends in a narrow ledge on the lands of 
Mr. William W. Phifer, a distance of nearly one-third of a 
mile. It is substantially an orthoclase felspar with veinlets 
and spots of black oxide of manganese penetrating it as the 
roots of grass penetrate a soil. The black and white con- 
stituents are mingled in most pleasing variety, and have 
made it a beautiful ornamental stone, but it is so hard and 
irregular and so abounds in "dry seams" as to be trouble- 
some and uncertain to work. Blocks of more than local 
interest have been quarried. One of these blocks was sent 
by the public spirited citizens of Charlotte to the Washing- 
ton monument. Another block is a part of the foundation 
of the mint, and still another lies in the pavement in front 
of Jordan's drug store. As a whole, it has failed to find its 
expected use. "Float" blocks of leopardite have also been 
found at Hunter's Calcic Springs, at Derita. 

Sandstone for building purposes is absent. 

Coal does not exist. In fact these geological formations 
are not the home of the coal beds. 

One diamond was found in the gold sands of Todd's 
branch in Paw Creek township in 1852; Dr. C. L. Hunter, 
who was familiar with its history, says: "It weighs about 
three-fourths of a carat, and is nearly of the first water." 
This locality, with many others, has been repeatedly ex- 
amined for this precious stone, but hitherto the result has 
been negative. If the gold sands had been carefully exam- 
ined in the palmy days of placer mining, it is highly proba- 
ble that other specimens of the gem would have been found. 

Garnets and zircons are sometimes found in the gold 
sands, but not in usable quantity. 

A few scales of platinum were claimed to have been found 
in the placer workings in the northeast border of the county,, 
near the Pioneer Mills neighborhood. 

ii6 History of Mecki^enburg County. 

Material for brick making is found everywhere; for the 
most part the altered, weathered, and thoroughly rotted 
country rock immediately above the bed rock is chosen for 
brick making. The brick manufactured is strong and dura- 
ble, but not so sightly as the Philadelphia and Wilmington 
brick; nevertheless it finds a wide and profitable use. 


The economic minierals and mine materials are confined 
to gold (and incidentally silver) ores, copper ores and mate- 
rial for building uses. 

The precise year in which gold was found in Mecklen- 
burg county is unknown; by 1821 placer work was practiced 
somewhat extensively, and as the placers became exhausted, 
the veins which supplied the placers were searched out. The 
situation in 1821 was discussed by Professors Olmsted, 
and Mitchell; in 1830 the mining localities were very 
numerous. Until the discovery of gold in California in 
1847, this county was the seat of a very active industry; a 
large number of miners and speculators turned away to 
this new Eldorado, and from this period gold mining lagged, 
imtil at the close of the late war only one mine, the Rudisil, 
was in operation. 

The mines of Mecklenburg county are quite widely scat- 
tered over its area. In this area of 20 by 30 miles, are nearly 
100 mines, which at one or another time have been worked 
profitably, and gold is more widely diffused than in any 
other county of the central part of the State. 

The ores of these mines are auriferous and sometimes 
cupriferous ; they rarely contain any notable amound of lead, 
zinc or nickel; the sulphur present is usually combined 
with iron. Arsenic and antimony are not common; the 
sulphur, in the form of sulphurets, was formerly greatly 
dreaded by the mill men as a great hindrance, but now the 
presence of the sulphurets is accounted an advantage. The 
vein fissures are from a few inches to 60 feet wide. Most of 
these fissures are filled with killas (slates), quartz and ores, 

History of Mining in M^cki^^nburg. 117 

but in depth the slaty structure is not so evident, or does 
not exist. The quartz itself shows a tendency to lamination, 
and there is often a parallelism in the bodies of sulphurets. 

The weathering influences have peroxidized the iron con- 
stituents of the entire surface to a great depth, sometimes to 
a depth of 150 feet. 

There has been no glacial action, other than a purely local 
and sedentary one, and the disintegrated surface has 
remained largely in place. The upper part of the vein has 
undergone a corresponding change, in which much of the 
slaty part has "rotted'' to "saprolites" and changed to a 
more or less hydrated "brown ore;" the copper pyrites has 
altered to malachite (rarely to azurite), chrysocalla, and 
sometimes to red or black oxide of copper, or occasionally 
to native copper, and quite often has been leached out from 
the surface ores, or has been concentrated at lower levels. 
The brown ore holds not only the gold which was originally 
in the sulphurets, but it has been further enriched as a result 
of the alterations, as is shown by the presence of grain and 
nugget gold, which is found in this zone more abundantly. 
Such ores are easily won and are treated without expensive 
machinery, for the process is a mechanical rather than a 
metallurgical one; ordinarily a relatively large part of the 
gold is extracted at a small cost. 

The permanent water level of the mines is, perhaps, a 
little below that of the adjacent streams, and is found at a 
depth of from twenty to sixty feet. The amount of water 
in the mines is usually large, and a very considerable part 
of the expense of mining is due to the cost of pumping. At 
the water level the sulphurets occur with little alteration, and 
the value of the ores is apt to be smaller, as the sources 
of the enrichment have been less active than in the gossan 
part near the surface. Any general statement must neces- 
sarily find exceptions, and occasionally the very best ores 
of a mine have been found at great depths, e. g., the Rudisil 
mine, where three "chimneys" or "shoots" of great width, 
(11 feet), and longitudinal extent are found with very ex- 
ceptionally high grade ores. 

ii8 History of Mecklenburg County. 

The difficulty in dealing with the ores from these. levels 
efficiently and economically was also increased so long as 
amalgamation was practiced, and the winning of the gold 
from these complex ores was early shown to be the vexed 
problem that we know to-day. 

The great expense of mining and treating such ores, and 
the decreased yield led to the abandonment of the larger 
part of the mines of North Carolina, and most of them still 
remain closed. Occasionally the ore bodies actually disap- 
pear entirely m this zone, through the closing in of the 
syenite walls, i. e., by the ''pinching out" of the ore body. 

The veins are too numerous for special description here. 
To a great extent they are capable of grouping into neigh- 
borhoods pre-eminently mineral. 



The vicinity of Charlotte is one of these mineral districts, 
and around it on all sides are mines, among them the David- 
son, Blake, Point, Parks, Clark, St. Catherine, Rudisil, 
Smith & Palmer, McDonald, Howell, Trotter, Carson, Tay- 
lor, Isenhour (Iceyhour), Chinquepin, and many others un- 
known to the general public, or unnamed. 

A second group is three to ten miles west and north 
west from Charlotte, viz., Summerville, Hayes, McGee, 
Brav^Iey, Frazer, Hipp, Campbell, Todd, Arlington, Capps, 
McGinn, Means, S. Wilson, Troutman, Prim, Abernathy, 
Alexander (Chapman), Dunn, Sloan, McCorkle and Cathey. 

A third group is found around the Ferris (Faires), six 
miles north of Charlotte, the Alexander and the Garris, and 
to the west of the Ferris, the Henderson, Elwood and the 
J. P. Hunter. 

Another group is found in Providence township, and 
about Sardis church, some five to ten miles southeast from 
Charlotte, among others the Hunter mine (two veins), 
Tredinick, and the Ray (three veins). 

The Pioneer Mills group, in Cabarrus cotmty, extends 

History of Mining in M^ckIvEnburg. 119 

into the northeast part of Meckleniburg. Specially promi- 
nent are the Johnson, Stinson, Maxwell, Black and Harris. 

The Davidson Hill mine, (really three mines), one mile 
west of Charlotte, has been worked to the depth of 160 feet 
at its north end. 

The Rudisil and St. Catherine are respectively the south 
and north ends of the same mine, being one-half mile to 
one mile southwest from Charlotte. Both mines have been 
worked almost from the earliest days of the vein mining of 
this section, and the former has received more attention 
than any mine in the county. The strike is N. 30 degrees 
E. and the dip nearly 45 degrees westerly. At the outset, 
and to a depth of 100 feet, two bodies of ore (or veins) 
were exploited — ^the "back vein" and the "front vein;" the 
two varied from two to six feet in thickness ; at 200 feet the 
vein appears more consolidated. This mine, for many years, 
was prosperous, the material being the easily treated famil- 
iar brown ores; from 100 to 200 feet the ore was more scat- 
tered through the gange; just below the 200 foot level three 
rich shoots of ore made their appearance, one of which far 
excelled the gossan in richness; it reached below the 350 
foot level, at which depth the vein was apparently "thrown" 
from its ix)sition. 

No statistics of production exist, but it is quite certain 
that the yield has been not less than a half million dollars. 

The St. Catherine end of the vein has had a history almost 
as eventful and has been worked to the vertical depth of 370 
feet. The Capps (or Capps Hill) mine is five and one-half 
miles from Charlotte. It is one of a group of mines closely 
united, of which two are convergent — the McGinn or Jane 
gold vein, and the Capps. The former courses with some 
variations N. 40 to 60 degrees E., and dips S. E. ; the 
Capps courses N. 30 degrees to 35 degrees W., and has a 
southwest dip. The McGinn mining tract has also some 
small and less well known veins approximating to the Capps 
in strike. The Capps is known to be fully 3,000 feet long, 
and the Jane vein is of equal extent ; the former was worked 

I20 History of Mecki^enburg County. 

to a dq)th of i6o feet, and the Jane or McGinn to 150 feet. 
Both veins have been very productive. Some of the older 
miners attribute an output of $2,000,000 to the Capps. The 
record of underground work is in great part lost, but there 
are abundant indications of very extensive work two gen- 
erations aga The Dunn mine, ten miles northwest from 
Charlotte, was the first discovered mine of the county, not 
long after the finding of the historic Reed nugget. 

Few mines are now worked in Mecklenburg county; the 
only ones of importance are the Capps, Surface Hill and the 
Wilhelmina, (Summerville.) 


The early methods practiced in placer work were speedily 
developed, and in no long time brought to a high degree of 
efficiency by the native miners working along the old famil- 
iar lines. The cradle, the tom and the sluice, with blanket 
washings, constituted the earliest forms of recovery; quick- 
silver was early introduced, and greatly assisted the profit- 
able extraction of gold. On account of the comparative flat- 
ness of the surface of the county, hydraulic methods found 
little opportunity for application or development. 

About 1825, the rocker, the drag mill and the arrastra, 
or Chilian mill, were known to be in use. As soon as the 
hard quartz was discovered there was immediately a neces- 
sity for some grinding apparatus; the home-made drag mill 
was the first step and no more efficient single machine has 
ever been introduced for saving the gold ; its defect is lack 
of capacity, and this lack finally led to the introduction of 
the arrastra, which was also made of home material. The 
arrastra or Chilian mill was copied from South American 
models, but the models were greatly excelled. The Hunga- 
rian bowl and jigs came shortly thereafter. The stamp mill, 
(the pounding mill, as it was then termed), soon followed; 
the earliest stamp mill known to the writer was put up at the 
Haile mine, Lancaster county, S. C, in 1837, by a French- 

History o? Mining in Mecki^enburg. 121 

man named Gugnot; it is claimed that the first stamp mill 
in Mecklenburg county was erected in 1840, at St. Cathe- 
rine's mill at the outlet of Bissell's pond, two miles south- 
west from Charlotte; the remains of this mill Vv-ere still stand- 
ing in 1872. This was the work of the late Humphrey Bis- 
sell, a co-laborer with Morse on the telegraph, and one of the 
most skillful and intelligent of the old mining population. 
This mill was used as one piece in a train of machinery, 
Which accomplished a very thorough extraction, and was 
used for many years as a custom mill by most of the mine 
owners of the county within easy reach. This mill merits 
a brief description, for it was the progenitor of the powerful 
stamp battery, (the California stamp battery), now so gen- 
erally used in dealing with gold ores; the frame work was 
of light timber, and the foundations were weak; the stems 
were also of wood of square section; the stamps were of 
cast iron, and the mortar, also of iron, was shallow and nar- 
row. The whole structure was a toy compared with bat- 
teries now used. 

It is worthy of passing remark that the late Mr. Edward 
Bissell and Dr. Daniel Asbury both informed the writer that 
Mr. Humphrey Bissell had also anticipated the modern 
stamp battery of the Lake Superior copper region in making 
a mortar with discharges from both faces. 

The first improved California stamp battery was erected 
soon after the Civil War. 

Mr. Bissell, with great forethought, had forecast the 
possibilities of the mining future of this county and section; 
and had visited Europe and studied the metallurgical meth- 
ods practiced at Freiberg, Swansea and other metallurgical 
and mining centers. On returning to Charlotte, in connec- 
tion with a German engineer, he set up a small experimental 
smelting plant, which was operated for several campaigns. 
Dates are wanting. From the papers, which he left, it may 
be inferred that he smelted for gold directly, and also 
practiced copper matte smelting. His untimely death ter- 
minated his experiments. 

122 History of Mecklenburg County. 

Other experimental furnaces were erected by other parties, 
but trustworthy data of these experiments are not known to 
the writer. 

Very marked progress was made in milling, amalgamating 
and concentrating, and many of the methods now practiced 
in the West owed their earliest f)opularization to the South 
Appalachian slope. Even the method of dredge mining, 
now carried out so extensively in the West, in New Zealand 
and in Georgia, appears to have been early outlined on the 
borders of Mecklenburg county in the Catawba river. 

Dr. J. H. Gibbon, assayer of the mint in Charlotte, as 
early as 1843 says that a Mr. Gibson took out a patent for 
a location on the Catawba river, naively remarking that he 
cared nothing for the water, but for the gravel on its bed ; 
the bottom of the river was scooped out by men on a float, 
using long handled shovel-like-scoops, and the material was 
carried ashore and washed for recovering the gold. 

Very early in the history of vein mining the South was 
visited and exploited by every class of foreign miners of all 
degrees of skill, from the learned and experienced mining 
engineer to the humblest class of underground laborers ; the 
writer's notes evidence the presence of Mexican^ Brazilian, 
Spanish, French, German, Australian, Hungarian, Italian, 
Turkish, English, Scotch, Welsh and Irish miners. But the 
Cornish miners outstayed all others, and formed a very 
unmero'us population, even so late as 40 years ago. Many 
of the best citizens of Mecklenburg are descended from these 
old miners: for instance, the Gluyas family, the Chapman 
family, the Tredinicks, the Groses, the Northeys, Severs, 
Elwoods, Richards, Lilycrops, Vivians, Fidlers, Hoopers, 
Moyles, Symons, Treloars, and Venos, show the vigor and 
worth of the race of early miners from abroad. 

The earliest period of speculative mining began about 
1830, and was ended by the commercial depressioni of that 
decade, and by 1839-40 the excitement had largely subsided. 
In the forties it commenced again and lasted with some 
vigor till the discovery of gold in California in 1848, when 

History of Mining in Mecki.e;nburg. 123 

there was an immediate stampede of the mining popula- 
tion. The war between the States put an end to all opera- 
tions, and when it closed the Rudisil mine was the only one 
operated in the county. 

Among the noted characters who figured during this 
period were Mr. Humphrey Bissell, a graduate of Yale Col- 
lege, and a learned and versatile man. The chevalier Vincent 
de Rivafanoli played a conspicuous part in the early thirties. 
He has been given the credit of having served under the 
great Napoleon, and of having enjoyed his confidence. He 
brought and engaged a large staff, and occupied for his 
headquarters and residence the house lately occupied by the 
Yates family, on South Tryon street. His style of living 
was deemed magnificent for that day, and his organization 
was run on severely military lines. His chief mines were 
the Rudisil and the St. Catherine. 

Thomas Penman operated many' mines over a period of 
several years. Dr. Daniel Asbury was also a skillful ope- 
rator, and made several fortunes. 

Commodore Stockton and Admiral Wilkes mined suc- 
cessfully for several years. 

With the exception just mentioned, the apparatus intro- 
duced in this period was grinding and concentrating 
machinery. The grinding machines were largely the pan — 
an iron drag mill — ^and the iron Chilian mill. In the pan the 
bed sometimes revolved (the Berdan pan), but commonly 
the revolution was the normal one of the mullers or grinders 
about a vertical axis with projecting arms. It was gen- 
erally maintained by careful observers that these iron pans 
were inferior to mills made of stone — stone grinding on 
stone — ^and it is quite certain that the old mill men made a 
better recovery with their home-made apparatus. The main 
elements of the metallurgical problem were early perceived, 
and attacked. 

After the war and continuing to the present time, a swarni 
of speculators and inventors came from the newly devel- 
oped mining sections of the West. Charlotte has always 

124 History of Mecklenburg Q)unty. 

been the center of their operations. Very little of permanent 
value has resulted. 

Not less than 48 different processes or methods have been 
first or last introduced within the writer's observation in the 
Appalachian section, and most of them in Mecklenburg 
county, of which only two survive as practical, thougli it is 
possible that another one, (the cyanide treatment), may 
ultimately be widely applicable. 

The elements of the problem to be solved are : Pulveriza- 
tion, concentration, roasting, (or expelling the sulphur, with 
incidental oxidation) and the extraction of the gold and 

The pulverization has finally been left to the old stone 
drag mill, the arrastra, and the stamp battery ; efforts to sup- 
plant these were : 

1. Revolving pulverizers on a horizontal axis. (Names 
and close descriptions of these are omitted on professional 

2. Pan grinding, i. e., discs revolving in the bed of the 

3. Iron mills after the general form of the drag mill, or 
the arrastra. Of these nine different forms are known. 

4. Crushing with Cornish rolls. 

The old-fashioned drag mill, arrastra, and stamp battery, 
(with an occasional use of rolls, and iron arrastras), have 
outlived the others. In other words, the older forms, in spite 
of uneconomical use of power and labor, have proved most 
useful, and in the long run most economical. 


The course followed in concentrating has been : sizing by 
trommels, and other apparatus, followed by jigging, and 
supplemented by crushing and concentrating by spitz boxes, 
by sweeping tables, or by buddies, or by belts. Five different 
systems have been used. 

Sizing, jigging, crushing and (after amalgamation) con- 

History of Mining in Mecki^enburg. 125 

centrating on belts 'have been found to be the best and most 
generally applicable methods. 


Here the crudest ideas have been exemplified. Generally 
described the following forms may noted: Magnetic roast- 
ing, chloridizing roasting, (two methods), horizontal roast- 
ing furnace with vertical axis; shaft roasting, i. e., dropping 
the pulverized ore from a height against an upwar'd current 
of hot air; kiln roasting, roasting with carbonaceous mat- 
ter, as sawdust, roasting the ore while passing through 
highly heated spiral pipes. 

The horizontal roasting furnace with vertical axis is 
sometimes used even now, but on the whole the old-fash- 
ioned reverberatory furnace, with two or three hearths has 
proved the most applicable to the wants of this section, 
being at once effective and easily under control, though pos- 
sibly not the most economical of fuel or of labor. 


The old methods of amalgamation were grinding the ore 
in drag mills and in arrastras with the use of mercury at the 
end of the grinding for collecting the gold liberated, with 
occasionally a rude concentration of the tailings by rockers, 
sweeping tables, launders and strakes, mercury frequently 
being used on or in the extra apparatus; later came the 
stamp battery with amalgamation in the mortar, and on cop- 
per or silvered copper plates, from which the gold was af- 
terwards scraped; the defect of these was the uneconomical 
use of power and labor, and the inefficient collection of the 
gold; at least 25 per cent, was lost in the rejected tailings, 
and perhaps 50 per cent. 

More ingenuity 'has been expended in devising improved 
methods of amalgamation than in any other department of 

126 History of Mecklenburg County. 

the metallurgy, and not one of these amalgamation methods 
has survived, thus leaving the field to the old methods of 
fifty years ago. 


Five methods were used at different times, but all were 
too costly, as well as ineffective. 

One of the most noted was : The Designolle process, con- 
sisting of the treatment of the roasted pulp with corrosive 
sublimate in iron vessels, with the intention of bringing the 
liberated mercury into touch with each particle of gold. 

In the cyanide method, the pulp was treated with a weak 
solution of cyanide of potassium, which has a strong solvent 
action on gold, which subsequently was precipitated by zinc, 
or by electrolysis. 

In other countries, (e. g.. South Africa), and other parts 
of the United States, cyaniding has been successful, but in 
Mecklenburg county and the South in general, it has in the 
long run been uncertain. 

The Plattner Chlorination, though effective in Europe and 
in California, has not been effective in this section. 

Chloridizing, or the roasting of gold ores with the addi- 
tion of common salt to convert the gold into soluble chlo- 
rides, was also uncertain. 

Barrell chlorination (two methods) has, after various 
vicissitudes, been brought to a wide and effective application 
in the mode known as the "Thies Chlorination Process ;" it 
is cheap, efficient and thorough. 

Three methods of electrical treatment were introduced, 
but the results have not been revealed to the public. 

Direct smelting for bullion has been a failure. 

Lead smelting, followed by the cupellation of the base lead 
bullion for the gold and silver contents has been successfully 
carried out at least twice, and was successful metallurgically, 
but not economically, as there are no lead ores within easy 

History of Mining in Mecki^^burg. 127 

Matte smelting, by which roasted and raw ores and con- 
centrates are smelted together and an artificial sulphide of 
cipper formed, which contains substantially all the copper in 
the entire mass, with the gold and silver. The concentrated 
matte is still farther concentrated by a second smelting to 
black copper, which in turn is treated by electrolysis for its 
gold and silver, and the copper separated in the form of pure 
cathode copper.* 


The ores, after pulverization and^ roasting, were treated 
with chloride of iron to dissolve the copper, which in turn 
as cement copper was precipitated from the solution by scrap 
iron. The residues were either amalgamated or smelted 
for the gold contents. The products of the mine were ingot 
copper and bar gold. 


The methods which have survived are the older forms of 
amalgamation chiefly by stamp battery, followed by belt and 
other concentration, roasting and chlorination, and in an- 
other line by the copper matte smelting process. 


This mint, a branch of the United States mint at Phila- 
delphia, was established by act of March 3, 1835, and by the 
same act the branch mint at Dahlonega, Ga., and at New 
Orleans, La. Fifty thousand dollars was appropriated for 
the Charlotte mint. 

Eight lots were purchased on- November 25, 1835, by 
Samuel McCombs, agent and commissioner for the United 

♦Note. — Copper matte smelting, except in its preliminary stages, 
has not been carried on in Mtecklenburg county; neither has the 
Hunt and Douglas method in its entirety. 

128 History of Mecklenburg Q)unty. 

States, on Trade street, for $1,500, viz., lots No. 135, 136, 
^33» 165, 166, 167, 168, and 144. 

This l^slation by Congress grew out of a long continued 
agitation on the part of the miners of Anson (and Union), 
Cabarrus, Rutherford, Davidson, Mecklenburg, and other 
counties of North and South Carolina, commencing 
very early after the discovery of gold. In 1830, the de- 
mands had grown sufficiently loud to lead the General As- 
sembly of North Carolina to appoint a special committee to 
investigate the subject under the chairmanship of Gideon 
Glenn. This report, among other matters, stated that the 
production of North Carolina was $500,000 annually, at 
a cost estimated at $150,000. The main conclusion of the 
report was the propriety of erecting a mint. The disad- 
vantage was for the time obviated by the coinage of $5.00, 
$2.50 and $1.00 pieces by the Bechtlers at Rutherfordton. 

The Charlotte mint was opened for business December 
4, 1837, and had for that time a large business immediately. 
The first depositor was Irwin & Elms. 

On July 27, 1844, the mint was burned at mid-day, proba- 
bly from the carelessness of a tinner repairing the roof. 

The question of its re-erection was at once sprung, and 
was opposed in Congress, and strangely by many people of 
this section. 

The extent of the damage is indicated by the following 
extract from a letter of the Director of the Mint at Philadel- 
phia to the Secretary of the Treasury of date of December 
14, 1844: 

"Of the main building it may be assumed that there is 
nothing left which can be made available, except a ix)rtion 
of the material, and perhaps of the old foundation. The out- 
buildings are all saved. In the department of the superin- 
tendent and treasurer, the coin, bullion, scale beams, furni- 
ture, books and papers were saved. In the assay room and 
in the melting room, but little damage was done. In the 
separating room the destruction was more considerable ; but 
all the losses of the apparatus and material can be replaced 


without resort to any new appropriation. In the coiner's 
department the steam engine was slightly injured. . . . 
The draw-bench is so much injured' that it will be expedient 
to replace it. . . . Of the cutting presses, one can be 
repaired, but the other must be replaced. The coining 
presses are past repair. The milling machine and the rolls 
are destroyed." 

The report recommended the expenditure of $25,000 for 
a new building, and $10,000 for machinery. 

The Hon. D. M. Barringer, who represented this district 
in Congress in 1844-5, writing in 1875, says : "I succeeded 
in getting an appropriation to rebuild it. . . . You 
will find a full report ... in the Congressional Globe, 
pages 223, 224, 225, February 21, 1845, second session 28th 

A commendatory local in the Jeffersonian April i, 1845, 
has the following: "The Superintendent of our mint (Hon» 
Green W. Caldwell) is a great fellow — a real business man. 
He received on this day week from the Director of the Mint 
his instructions for putting up a new building, and on Mon- 
day after he made a contract for the whole job at a less cost 
than the Government appropriated. Ooir enterprising fellow 
townsman, H. C. Owens, Esq., took the contract for 
$20,000, the building to be completed by the ist of January, 

The important officials of the institution were : 

Col. John H. Wheeler, appointed Superintendent in 1837; 
Col. Burgess S. Gaither, appointed Superintendent in 1841 ; 
Hon. Green Washington Caldwell, appointed Superintend- 
ent in 1844, resigned in 1846 and went with the volunteer 
forces to Mexico; Hon. William Julius Alexander, ap- 
pointed Superintendent in 1846; Hon. Jas. W. Osborne, ap- 
pointed superintendent in 1849; Col. Green Washington 
Caldwell, appointed Superintendent in 1853; Dr. Isaac W. 
Jones, appointed Assayer in Charge in 1867; Hon. Calvin J. 
Cowles, appointed Assayer in Charge in 1869; Col. Robt. P. 
Waring, appointed Assayer in Charge in 1885; Prof. Stuart 


W. Cramer, appointed Assayer in Charge in 1889; Captain 
W. E. Ardrey, appointed Assayer *in Charge in 1893; Hon. 
W. S. Clanton, appointed Assayer in Charge in 1897; D. 
Kirby Pope, Esq., appointed Assayer in charge in 1903. 

Dr. John H. Gibbon was Assayer during the whole period 
preceding the war, and W. F. Strange Clerk. Other impor- 
tant officials were: Edward Terres, John R. Bolton, Em- 
mor Graham, John Rigler, A. N. Gray, Andrew Erwiri, 
Thomas H. Harmer, Frederick Eckfeldt, George B. Hanna, 
W. D. Cowles, Josiah D. Cowles, W. C. Wilkinson, Robert 
P. Chapman. 

Operations by the United States were practically termi- 
nated May 21, 1 861, when the State, which had seceded on 
the 20th, occupied the building with its troops. Subse- 
quently it was used by the Confederate authorities, espe- 
cially by the navy office, till the termination of hostilities, 
when it was seized by the Federal authorities and' used by 
the military officials till the summer of 1867. It was then 
opened as an assay office, and has so continued till the pres- 
ent time, with a brief interruption from July i, 1875, ^0 
October 16, 1876. 

The selection of Charlotte as the mint centre of this sec- 
tion has been abundantly justified, and no better point could 
have been indicated to accommodate the mining and com- 
mercial interests of this region ; it draws its patronage most 
largely from the South Appalachian slope, from Maryland 
to Alabama, but also in a lesser degree from twenty-one 
other States, Territories and foreign countries. 

Its business during the calendar year 1902 was, at coin- 
ing rates, $288,985.87. 

The total coinage at the Charlotte mint from' its organiza- 
tion in 1838, to its suspension in 1861, was $5,059,188.00, 
all in gold, viz., half eagles, quarter eagles, and dollars. The 
coins were discriminated by the letter "C." 

The following table is official : 



{Coinage of the Mint at Charlotte, N, (7., from its Organization, 1838, 
to its Suspension, 1861.] 

Calendar Year. 


Total Value. 





$ 64,565 

$19,770 00 
45,432 50 
32,095 00 
25,742 50 
16,842 50 
65,240 00 
29,055 00 

$ 84,335 00 


162,767 50 


127,235 00 


133,297 50 


154,242 50 


287,005 00 


147,210 00 


1846 . . 


12,020 00 
58,065 00 
41,970 00 
25,550 00 
22,870 00 
37,307 50 
24,430 00 

76,995 00 


478,820 00 


364,330 00 












361,299 00 
347,791 00 
324,454 50 
3%,734 00 


339,370 00 




18,237 50 

9,192 50 

19,782 50 

214,6% 50 
217,935 50 
162,067 50 
170,080 00 
216,920 00 




22,640 00 




164,470 00 
92,737 50 


34,395 00 



544,915 00 


5,059.188 00 

♦Mint burned July 27, 1844. 

The total deposits at the Charlotte office from its organi- 
zation to December 31, 1902, amounted to $10,163,666.54, 
of which possibly $60,000.00 may have been silver con- 
tained in the native goM, 

George B. Hanna. 




Ck)mplete List of the Members of the General Assembly From This 
CJounty From 1764 to 1903.— Martin Phifer and Richard Barry 
Were the First 

Year. Senator. Representative. 

1764 Biartin Phifer. Richard Barry. 

1765 / Biartin Phifer, Richard Barry. 

1766 Martin Phifer, Thomas Polk. 

1767 Martin Phifer, Thomas Polk. 

1768 Martin Phifer, Thomas Polk. 

1769 Thomas Polk, Abraham Alexander. 

1770 Thomas Polk, Abraham Alexander. 

1771 Thomas Polk, Abraham Alexander. 

1772 Martin Phifer, John uavidson. 

1773 Martin Phifer, John Davidson. 

1774 Thomas Polk, John Davidson. 

1775 Thomas Polk, John Phifer, John Mc- 

Knitt Alexander, Samuel ikiartin, 

Waightstill Avery, James Houston. 

John Phifer, Robert Irwin, John Mc- 

1776 Knitt Alexander. 

1777.. Jno. McKnitt Alexander. Martin Phifer. Waightstill Avery. 

1778. .Robert Irwin Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1779. .Robert Irwin .Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1780. .Robert Irwin Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1781. .Robert Irwin'. Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1782. .Robert Irwin Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1783. .Hobert Irwin Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1784. .James Harris Caleb Phifer, David Wilson. 

1785. .James Harris Caleb Phifer, George Alexander. 

1786. .James Mitchell Caleb Phifer, George Alexander. 

1787 . . Robert Irwin Caleb Phifer, William Pol Jt. 

1788.. Joseph Graham Caleb Phifer, Joseph Douglas. 

1789. .Joseph Graham Caleb Phifer, George Alexander. 

1790. .Joseph Graham Robert Irwin, William Polk. 

1791. .Joseph Graham Caleb Phifer, William Polk. 

1792. .Joseph Graham Caleb Phifer, James Harris. 

1793. .Joseph Graham Charles Polk, George Graham. 

1794. .Joseph Graham Charles Polk, George Graham. 

1795. .Robert Irwin .Charles Polk, George Graham. 

1796. .George Graham David McKee, William Morrison. 

V'\i 1. I. 

uuRT^^u^^i^:^ l^r 





1797. .Robert Irwin James Connor, Nathaniel Alexander. 

1798. .Robert Irwin James Connor, Hugh Parker. 

1799. .Robert Irwin James Connor, Sherrod Gray. 

1800. .Robert Irwin Charles Polk, Hugh Parker. 

1801. .Nathaniel Alexander. .. Charles Polk, Alexander Morrison. 
1802 .. Nathaniel Alexander.. Thos. Henderson, Alexander Morrison. 

1803 . .George Graham Thos. Henderson, Alexander Morrison. 

1804.. George Graham Thos. Henaerson, Samuel Lowrie. 

1805.. George Graham Geo. W. Smart, Samuel Lowrie. 

1806.. George Graham Thomas Henderson, Samuel Lowriee. 

1807. .George Graham Thomas Henderson, John Harris. 

1808. .George Graham Geo. W. Smart. John Harris. 

1809 . . George Graham Thos. Henderson, Hutchins G. Burton. 

1810. .George Graham Thos. Henderson, Hutchins G. Burton. 

1811.. George Graham Jonathan Harris, Henry Massey. 

1812.. George Graham Jonathan Harris, Henry Massey. 

1813. .William Davidson Jonathan Harris, Cunningham Harris. 

1814. .Jonathan Harris William Beattie, George Hampton. 

1815.. William Davidson John Ray, Abdon Alexander. 

1816.. William Davidson Joab Alexander, John Wilson. 

1817. .\viliiam Davidson John Rea, John Wilson. 

1818.. William L. Davidson .. John Rea, John Wilson. 

1819. .Michael McLeary John Rea, Miles J. Robinson. 

1820. .Michael McLeary John Rea, Miles J. Robinson. 

1821. .Michael McLeary John Rea, Samuel M«^Combs. 

1822. .Michael McLeary John Rea, Matthew Baine. 

1823. .Iteachael McLeary Thomas G. Polk, Matthew Baine. 

1824.. Michael McLeary Thomas G. Polk, Matthew Baine. 

1825. .William Davidson Thomas G. Polk, Matthew Baine. 

1826. .Michael McLeary William J. Alexander, Matthew Baine. 

1827. .William Davidson Wm. J. Alexander, Joseph Blackwood. 

1828. .William Davidson Wm. J. Alexander, Joseph Blackwood. 

1829.. William Davidson Wm. J. Alexander, Evan Alexander. 

1830.. Joseph Blackwood Wm. J. Alexander, Evan Alexander. 

1831. .Henry Massey James Dougherty, John Harte. 

183 2.. Henry Massey James Dougherty, John Harte. 

1833. .Washington Morrison. Wm. J. Alexander, Andrew Grier. 
1834.. William H. McLeary.. Wm. J. Alexander, J. M. Hutchison. 

1835. .Stephen Fox J. A. Dunn, J. M. Hutchison. 

1836.. Stephen Fox G. W. Caldwell, J. A. Dunn, J. M. 

1838.. Stephen Fox G. ^- Caldwell, Jas. T. J. Orr, Caleb 


1840.. J. T. J. Orr G. W. Caldwell, John Walker, Benja- 
min Morrow. 


1842. .John Walker John Kirk, Jas. W. Ross, Caleb Irwin. 

1844.. John Walker John Kirk, J. A. Dunn, Robt Lem- 


1846. John Walker John W. Potts, John N. Davis, Robt 


1848. .John Walker J. K. Harrison, J. N. Davis, J. J. Wil- 

1850.. Green W. Caldwell J. K. i^arrison, E. C. Davidson, J. J. 


1852.. Green W. Caldwell ... .W. Black, J. A. Dunn, J. Ingram. 

1854.. John Walker W. Black, W. R. Myers. 

1856. . W. R. Myers W. Matthews, W. F. Davidson. 

1858.. W. F. Davidson H. M. Pritchard, W. Wallace. 

1860. .John WalKer S. W. Davis, J. M. Potts. 

1862. .John A. Young J. L. Brown, B. C. Grier. 

1864. .W. M. Grier J. L. Brown, B. C. Grier. 

1866. .J. H. Wilson R. D. Whitley, J. M. Hutchison 

1868. .Jas. W. Osborne R. D. Whitley, W. M. Grier. 

1870.. H. C. Jones R. p. Waring, J. W. Reid. 

1872. .R. P. Waring John E. Brown, S. W. Reid. 

1873. .R. P. Waring John E. Brown, S. W. Reid. 

1874. .R. P. Waring John B. Brown, S. W. Reid. 

1875. .R. P. Waring j. L. Jetton, J. W. Reid. 

1877. .T. J. Moore R. A. Shotwell, W. B. Ardrey. 

1879. .S. B. Alexander j. l. Brown, W. E. Ardrey. 

1881 . .A. Burwell -A. G. Neal, B. H. Walker. 

1883.. S. B. Alexander j. s. Myers, T. T. Sandifer, W. H. 

1885.. S. B. Alexander R. p. Waring, W. B. Ardrey, H. D. 

1887.. S. B. Alexander j. t. Kell, E. K. P. Osborne, J. W. 


1889. .J. S. Reid N. Gibbon, J. W. Hood, J. C. Long. 

1891. .W. B. Ardrey R. a. Grier, J. W. Hood, W. D. Mayes. 

1893. .F. B. McDowell j. R. Erwin, H. W. Harris, J. L. Jetton. 

1895. .W. C. Dowd j. T. Kell, J. D. McCall, J. G. Alexan- 
1897.. J. B. Alexander M. B. Williamson, W. S. Clanton, W. 

P. Craven. 
1899.. F. I. Osborne Heriot Clarkson, R. M. Ransom, J. E. 

1901. .S. B. Alexander C. H. Duls, W. B. Ararey, F. M. Shan- 


1903.. H. N. Pharr H. Q. Alexander, Thomas O. Gluyas, 

H. C. Freeman. 



Five Companies Sent From This County to the War with England 
Caused by the Searching of American Vessels for British Sail- 
ors. — ^A Total of Four Hundred and Thirty-three Enlisted Men.* 



Joseph Douglass, Captain. 
William M. Kary, Lieutenant. 
Hamilton Brevard, First Sergeant. 
David Gibony, Second Sergeant. 
Samuel Brown, Third Sergeant. 
William M. Barrett, Fourth Sergeant. 
Thomas Allen, First Corporal. 
John Solon, Second Corporal. 
Isaac V. Pitt, Third Corporal. 
R. Duckword, Fourth Corporal. 

Harrison, Adam.* 
Wiley, Hugh. 
Moore, James. 
Caldwell, John. 
Love, Joseph. 
Bingham, Joseph. 
Gregg, Hugh. 
Hood, Junius. 
Alexander, David. 
Parker, James. 
Wallace, Matthew. 
McRae, Thomas. 
Phillips, John. 
Farr, Henry. 
Todd, Hugh. 
Elliott, Hugh. 
Jimison, Arthur. 
Parish, Nicholas. 
Walker, Andrew. 
Roden, Upton. 

Wilson, David B. 
Beaty, Isaac. 
Sharply, William. 
Erwin, Francis. 
Mason, Richard. 
Darnell, John L. 
Hutchison, Samuel J. 
Hutchison, James. 
Darnell, John. 
Moore, Alexander. 
Darnell, William. 
Cunningham, Jacob I. 
Alexander, EH. 
Lucas, Allen. 
Graham, Samuel. 
Shepherd, Thomas. 
Fat, John. 
Washam, Alexander. 
Sullivan, William. 
Henderson, David. 

♦From the Roster published by the State in 1837. 



RobertflOD. Will 
8oloiDOii« Dmiy. 
Mclie, ThomsLM, 
Masteetli, William. 
Alexander, Palaa. 
Elliott, John B. 
Camerson, William. 
Clark, Joftfiaa. 
McLure, John. 
Thompson, Benjamin. 
Bmitn, Alexander. 
Darnel, Dayid. 
Harris, Hugh. 

Johnston, Mitchell. 
Downy, William. 
Bnshbej. WilL 
Sloan, Allen. 
Lane, .cuidrew M. 
Weir, Howard. 
Ferret, John, Sr. 
Garretson, Arthur. 
Simmimer, Jamea. 
Holmes, Hn^ 
.Sterenson, Hn^ 
Scott, WllL 

Total. 76. 



Robert Wood, Captain. 
Jacob Shaver, Lieutenant 
Peter Mape, Second Lieutenant. 
John Wilson, Ensign. 
William Flenigan, First Sergeant. 
John Hooker, Second Sergeant 
John Barnes, Third Sergeant. 
James Watson, Fourth Sergeant 
John Hummons, First Corporal. 
Obed Dafter, Second Corporal. 
Will John, Third Corporal. 
Charles Hart, Fourth Corporal, 
Allen Stewart, Drummer. 
John Rice, Fifer. 

Bambow, Paten. 
Purvins, Antheris. 
Crowell, Charles. 
Lemmond, William L. 
Stams, Jacob. 
McLoyd, Daniel. 
Walker, James. 
Brown, John. 
Flenigan, Robert. 
Sharp, William. 

Flenigan, Elias. 
Cheek, Randolph. 
Flenigan, Samuel E. 
McCallok, Elias. 
Stewart, Andrew. 
Wiley, Samuel. 
John, Ash. 
Sharp, Cunningham. 
Wiat, John. 
Black, John. 



RECEIPT, 1783. 



Bryan, Joseph. 
Clontz, Henry. 
Cathberton, John. 
Flow, John. 
Bold, Robert. 
McReley, Roderick. 
Stunford, Moses. 
Lancey, Charles. 
None, John. 

Prifly, Valentine. 
Moser, Henry. 
Robertson, James. 
Yandles, Jesse. 
Henley, Thomas. 
Fobes, John. 
Howard, Lewis. 
Irvey, Will U. 
Long, John. 
Givens, Samuel. 

Shannon, Robert. 
Morris, Solomon. 
Pool, William. 
Broom, Allen. 
Belk, Brelon. 
Holden, Samuel. 
Flenigan, Michael. 
Ooughran, Eli. 
Bedford, William. 
Rea, Will. 
Ormond, Samuel. 
Ormand, Adam. 
McCJorkle, John. 
Thompson, James. 
Miller, Thomas. 
Martin, William. 
Pirant, William. 
Bams, William. 

Total, 71. 



John Garretson, Captain. 
Isaac Wiley, Lieutenant. 
Natheil Sims, Ensign. 
Archibald Sawyer, First Sergeant. 
Ira B. Dixon, Second Sergeant. 
William Smith, Third Sergeant. 
Joro Kimmons, Fourth Sergeant. 
William Mays, First Corporal. 
John Holbrooks, Second Corporal. 
Frederick Kiser, Third Corporal. 
A. M. Grady, Fourth Corporal. 
George Kenty, Drummer. 
John Jaccour, Fifer. 

Irwin, John. 
Harris, Samuel H. 
Ross, James. 
Harris, Houston. 
Alexander, John. 

Hams, Isaac. 
Alexander, Laid. 
Carrigan, Robert, Sr. 
Carrigan, Robert, Jr. 
Gaylor, Theophllus. 



Carroll, John. 
Hamilton, Joseph. 
Houston, Dayld. 
Neele, Andrew. 
Neele, James. 
Flemmlng, George. 
Icehour, Martin. 
Dove, George. 
Smith, William. 
Linker, George. 
Smith, Daniel. 
Barnhardt, John 
Fink, Son. 
Carrlher, Andrew. 
Fink, Philip. 
Taylous, John S. 
Johnston, John. 
Campbell, Cyrus. 
Cochran, Robert M. 
Morrison, John. 
Morrison, Robert C. 
McCain, Hugh. 
Bost, Daniel 
House, Jacob. 
Miller, Henry. 
Rinehart, Jacob. 
Rowe, Henry. 
Bost, Matthias. 
Owrey, Michael. 

Light, John. 
Goodnight, John. 
Freeze, Adam. 
Freeland, John. 
Clisk, John. 
Chaple, Jesse. 
Sneed, Reuben. 
Johnston, Rufus. 
Black, David H. 
Black, John. 
Biggers, Johnston N. 
Newitt, William. 
Right, George. 
Gilmore, Josiah. 
Martin, Edward. 
Kelly, William. 
Wines, William. 
Keelough, Ebenezer. 
Hall, James. 
Gaugus, Jacob. 
Gooaman, John. 
Walter, Charles. 
McGraw, James. 
Luther, Daniel. 
Shank, Martin. 
Simmon, Jacob. 

Total. 78. 

AUGUST, 1814. 

James Wilson, Captain. 
Thomas Boyd, Esq., First Lieutenant. 
Joseph Blackwood, Second Lieutenant. 
Isaac Price, Third Lieutenant. 
Charles Hutchinson, Ensign. 

Caldwell, Robert. 

Caldwell, Robert, Ja. 
Carson, William. 
Wynens, John. 
Gamer, Barzilla. 

McCombs, James. 
Barnett, John. 
McKelvla, William. 
Hawkins, John. 
Barnett, Amos. 



Alexander, Ezekiel. 
Shelvey, William. 
Garrison, John C. 
Means, James. 
Hope, Thomas. 
Price, John. 
Parks, John, Sr. 
Johnston, Samuel, Jr. 
Parrish, Andrew M. 
Dunn, William. 
Lewing, Andrew, Jr. 
Perry, Francis. 
Parra, John. 
Lewing, John. 
Carothers, James. 
Dinkins, James. 
Bigham, Rooert, Jr. 
Johnston, John. 
Johnston, William. 
Neeley, Samuel. 
Reed, David. 
Whiteside, Joseph. 
Miles, Augustus. 
West, Matthew. 
CJonnell, Thomas. 
Benhill, William. 
McKnight, Robert. 
Baker, Michael. 
Baker, Abel. 
McDowell, Hugh. 
Wolles, William, Jr. 
Wallis, Matthew, Jr. 
Parks, Samuel. 
Wynns, Ann. 
Sadler, John. 
Bamhill, John. 
Julin, Jacob. 
Henderson, uames. 
McCracken, Elisha. 
Love, Christopher. 
Dunn, Kobert, Jr. 
Brown, john. 
Norman, William o. 
Baxter, Daniel. 
Wilson, Benjamin. 
Elliott, Thomas. 

Ck>nner, James. 
Davis, Daniel. 
Elliott, William. 
Hartley, Richard. 
Duckworth, George. 
Meek, James. 
Alexander, James. 
Jones, Joel. 
Morrison, Isaac, Jr. 
Sloan, James. 
Parker, John. 
Williams, Joseph. 
Menteith, James. 
Prim, Andrew. 
Kerr, William. 
Hawkins, John. 
Baker, Aaron. 
Walker, Andrew. 
Porter, James. 
Beaty, John. 
Bigham, Samuel. 
Pelt, Simon V. 
Beaty, John. 
Jackson, Peavon. 
Blackburn, John. 
Wilson, John, Jr. 
Osborne, Robert A. 
White, John. 
Channt^ls, Michael. 
Ferrel, Gabriel. 
Irwin, Giles. 
Ferrel, John. 
Wallis, Joseph. 
Hunter, Henry, Jr. 
Ferrel, William. 
Steele, James. 
Gray, Nelson. 
Steele, John. 
Montgomery, Robert. 
Brady, James A. 
Peoples, Richard. 
McKellerand, Joseph. 
Alexander, John D. 
Goforth, George. 

Total. 105. 



AUGUST, 1814. 


David Moore, Captain. 
John Wilson, First Lieutenant 
Solomon Reed, Second Lieutenant. 
William John, Third Lieutenant 
Albertes Alexander, Ensign. 

Barfleet, Richard. 
McCall, Matthew. 
McCall, James. 
Thompson, Henry. 
Stewart, Alexander. 
Cheery, William. 
Robertson, James. 
Yaudles, Samuel. 
Harbeson, James. 
Stams, Nathaniel. 
Shehorn, Morris. 
Yerby, William. 
Rone, James. 
Belk, John. 
Rich, Daniel. 
Downs» William. 
Shelby, William. 
Freeman, Gideon. 
Morrison, John. 
Allen, John. 
Forsythe, John. 
Barnes, James. 
Purser, Moses. 
Barns, Micajah. 
Wilkinson, Osborne. 
Allen, Robert 
Vinson, Groves. 
Helms, William. 
Helms, Charles. 
Stams, Frederic. 
Spravey, Benjamin. 
Reed, Joseph. 
Kerr, Adam. 
Matthews, John. 
Parke. George. 
Junderbusk, John. 
Flowers, Henry. 

Yaudles^ David B. 
Alexander, Salamachus. 
Alexander, Abdon. 
Smart Osbom. 
Smart, jbliisha. 
McCulIock, John. 
Cook, Robert 
Hanson, Stephen. 
Craig, Moses. 
McCoy, William. 
Howood, Robert. 
Woodall, William. 
Gray, Jacob. 
Howie, Aaron. 
King, Andrew. 
Finsher, Joshua. 
Rape, Samuel. 
Rener, Samuel. 
Hambleton, James. 
Vick, Moses. 
Phillips, John. 
Train, James. 
Berns, George. 
Fisher. William. 
Button. Daniel. 
McAlroy, Hugh. 
Ivey, Jess. 
Hauley, John. 
Story, David W. 
Fuller, John. 
Shaw, James. 
Reed, William. 
Taylor, Wilson. 
Maglauchlin. John. 
Maygeehee, William. 
Hall, Joseph. 
Hargett, Henry. 




Hargett, William. 
Helmer, Joel. 
Crowell, John. 
Chalney, Peter. 
Harkey, David. 
Tutor, George. 
Stilwell, Elias. 
Morrison, James. 
Tomberlin, Moses. 
Reak, EMward. 
Morrison, Neel. 
Costley, James. 
Cochran, Thomas S. 
Houston, William, Jr. 
Cochran, Robert. 

Wilson, Hugh. 
Hood, Reuben. 
Dennis, Charles. 
Neele, Samuel. 
Harkey, John. 
Rogers, James. 
Harrison, Robert. 
Hodge, John. 
Lambert, Richard. 
Webb, Lewis. 
Story, James, Sr. 

Total, 103. 

Grand total, 433. 



Roster of Officers and Men of the Twenty-one Ck)mpanies Sent From 
This CJounty.— 2,735 Soldiers and only 2,021 Voters.— Number 
Killed, Wounded or Died.* — List of Promotions. 

♦Abbreviations: W, wounded; K, killed; D, died; W. C„ wounded 
and captured; P, promoted. 



(Enlisted in April, 1861, for Six Months.) 


L. S. Williams, Captain, commissioned April 18, 1861, Mecklenburg 

W. A. Owens, Captain, P. 

W. A. Owens, First Lieutenant, commissioned April 18, 1861, 
Mecklenburg County; promoted Major of Thirty-fourth Regiment, k. 
Robt. Price, First Lieutenant. 
W. P. Hill, Second Lieutenant. 
T. D. Gillespie, Third Lieutenant 


T. D. Gillespie, First Sergeant. 

J. H. Wyatt, Second Sergeant. 

J. B. French, Fourth Sergeant. 

R. B. Davis, First Corporal. 

J. J. Alexander, Second Corporal. 

W. M. Mattheus, Jr., Third Corporal. 

A. M. Rhym, Fourth Corporal. 

Phillips, First Sergeant 

Black Davis, Corporal. 

Julius Alexander, Sergeant 

Minor Sadler, Druggist. 

Anderson, C. Alexander, F. T. 

Alexander, J. L. Bamett, William. 

Alexander, M. E. Bond, Newton. 

civil. WAR TROOPS. 


Boone, J. B. T. 

Black, Josiah. 

Bourdeaux, A. J. 

Biggart, W. S. 

Crawford, R. R. 

Crowell, E. M. 

Caldwell, R. B. 

Caldwell, J. E. 

Cannedy, Robt. 

Davis, J. G. A. 

Bavis, R. A. G. 

Davidson, J. F. 

Dorsett, J. F. 

Dyer, W. G. 

Eagle, A. 

Eagle, John. 

Frazier, M. L. 

Frazier, John. 

Fredrick, J. R. 

FuUenweider, H. 

Fanygen, M. L. 

Gray, H. N. 

Gray, R. F. 

Grier, S. A. 

Graham, S. R. 

Gillett, J. H. 

Griffin, J. H. 

Hunter, J. H. 

Hollingsworth, B. 

Harris, W. L. 

Howell. S. A. 

Hilton, S. H. 

Henderson, W. M. 

Howell, E. M. 

Jacobs, G. W. 

Jones, Milton. 

Jaswa, L. R. 

Kesiah, Wm. 

Kerr, Wm. J. 

Landler, Orminer. 

Lee, J. M. 

McGinnis, R. C. 

Liowrie, J. B., k. at Gettysburg. 

Liowrie, J. B., k. 

Muny, T. N. 

McDonald, Allen. 
McCorkle, R. B. 
Moseley, M. 
Means, W. N. M. 
Meholers, John. 
Nichols, J. S. 
Norment, A. A. 
Gates, Jas. H. 
Gates, Coowy. 
Orr, S. H. 
Price, R. S. 
Phifer, R. 
Paredoe, S. M. 
Potts, J. W. 
Price, Joseph. 
Phelps, H. M. 
Query, R. W. 
Rose, W. C. 
Rieler, G. H. 
Rea, W. P. 
Rozzell, W. F. 
Squires, J. B. 
Stowe, John. 
Sharpe, R. A. 
Shaw, L. W. A. 
Sadler, Julius. 
Smith, J. Perry. 
Steel, M. D. 
Sheppard, J. W. 
Taylor, J. W. 
Torrence, George. 
Tovam, William. 
Tiddy, J. F. 
Tiddy, R. A. 
Tate, A. H. 
Thompson, R. 
Vagorer, J. V. 
Winale, M. F. 
Wiley, W. J. 
Williams, W. S. 
Williamson, J. W. 
Tate, Henry. 

Total, 108. 




(Enlisted ir. April, 1861.) 


E. A. Ross, Captain; Promoted Major of Eleventh North Carolina. 
E. B. Cohen, First Lieutenant 
T. B. Trotter, Second Lieutenant. 
C. W. Alexander, Second Lieutenant. 

C. R. Staley, Orderly Sergeant 

J. P. Elms, Second Sergeant; Promoted Lieutenant Thirty-seventh 
North Carolina. 
J. G. McCorkle, Third Lieutenant. 
W. G. Berryhill, Fourth Lieutenant 

D. L. Bringle, Fifth or Ensign. 

W. D. Elms, First Corporal; Promoted Captain Thirty-seventh 
North (Carolina. 

W. B. Taylor, Second Corporal; Promoted Second Lieutenant Com- 
pany A, Eleventh North Carolina. 

Henry Terris^ Third Corporal. 

G^rge Wolfe, Fourth Corporal. 

Dr. J. B. Boyd, Surgeon. 

M. R. Alexander. 

T. A. Alexander. 

Lindsey Adams. 

J. P. Ardery, P. CJapt 49th N. C. 

W. E. Ardrey, P. Capt., 30th N. C. 

A. H. Brown. 

Wm. Brown. 

Wm. J. Brown. 

Ed. F. Britton 

L. Behrends. 

Wm. (balder. 

J. W. CJathey. 

S. P. Caldwell. 

J. F. Crawson. 

T. B. Cowan. 

T. J. Campbell. 

J. W. Clendennen. 

J. F. Collins. 

T. G. Davis. 

J. T. Downs, P. Lieut, 30th N. C. 

L. W. Downs. 
J. P. A. Davidson. 
J. R. Dunn. 
I. S. A. Frazier. 
James Flore. 
R. H. Flow. 
J. A. Elliott 
S. H. Elliott. 
J. A. Ezzell. 
M. F. Ezzell. 
J. M. Earnheardt. 
J. Engel. 
R. H. Grier, f. Lieut, 49th N. C. 
J. C. Grier, P. Capt, 49th N. C. 
J. M. Grier. 
D. P. Glenn. 
J. R. Gribble. 
J. A. Gibson. 
N. Gray. 
R. L. Gillespie. 





D. W. Hall. 
J. C. Hill. 
W. J. Hill. 
H. H. Hill. 

S. R. Neal. 
P. A. Neal. 
Thos. W. Neely. 
S. Oppenheim. 

W. Lee Hand, P. Capt A, 11th N. C. J. T. Orr. 

Robt. H. Hand, P. Lieut. A, llth N. C.John L. Osborne. 

R. H. Howard. 
Thomas Howard. 
Jas. M. Hutchison. 
Cynes N. Hutchison. 
Tom F. Holton. 
Tom M. Harkey. 
S. Hymans. 
Harper C. Houston. 
T. Lindsey Holmes. 
Jas. T. Haskell. 
W. T. Hanser. 
George T. Herron. 
Geo. W. Howey. 
Jacob Harkey. 
L. P. Henderson. 
Jack R. Isreal. 
Wm. S. Icehower. 
E. P. Ingold. 
Robt. W. Johnston. 
Jacob Katz. 
Wm. H. Kistler. 
Jack A. Kinsey. 
J. H. Knox. 
Robt. Keenah. 
Louis Leon. 
J. C. Levi. 
Jacob Leopold. 
Henry Moyle. 
Thomas F. McGinn. 
John McKlnley. 
Wm. McKeever. 
D. Watt McDonald. 
John H. McDonald. 
Robt. J. Monteith. 
Moses O. Monteith. 
Sam'l J. McEiroy. 
Jack Norment 
Isaac Norment. 
Wm. B. Neal. 
L. M. Neal. 

J. E. Orman. 

Mack Pettus. 

S. A. Phillips, 

W. R. Carter. 

R. A. Carter. 
John G. Potts, P. Lieut., 49th Rgt 

Wm. M. Potts. 
Lamson A. Potts, P. Capt, 37th N. C. 

Calvin M. Query. 

Theo. C. Ruddock. 

J. R. Rea. 

D. B. Rea. 

Wm. D. Stone. 

W. Steele. 

Jim M. Stowe. 

Wm. E. Sizer. 
J. Monroe Sims, Q. M. Sergt, 11th 
N. C. 

Richard A. Springs. 

C. Ed. Smith. 

S. B. Smith. 

M. H. Smith. 

W. J. B. Smith. 

W. H. Saville. 

John W. Sample. 

David I. Sample. 

James M. Saville. 

Robt. Frank Simpson. 

S. E. Todd. 

Wm. Todd. 

John W. Treloar. 

Hugh A. Tate. 

Charles B. Watt. 

B. Frank Watt. 

C. C. Wingatc. 
T. D. Wolf3. 
T. J. Wolfe 
John Wiley. 

Total, 143. 




J. M. Biiller, Captain. 

M. D. L. McLeod. 

R. H. Blaxwell, Lieutenant. 

J. L. Morrow, Lieutenant, k. 

W. B. Field, Lieutenant. 

J. F. Johnson, Captain. 


M. steel. 
D. S. Hutchison. 
J. P. Alexander. 
P. C. Harkey. 
J. M. Pugh. 
R. H. Cambell. 
D. K. Orr, w. 
J. Lewellyn. 
M. L. Davis. 
J. B. Stearns. 
J. W. Moore. 
J. W. Kizziah. 
W. T. Bishop. 

Antrioe, J. W. 
Antrice, W. M., d. 
Archey, J. W. 
Anderson, L. D. 
Ardrey, J. W. 
Blake, S. N. 
Barris, E. C. 
Burris, J. T. 
Breffard, W. J. 
Ballard, F. A. 
Ballard, J. L. 
Boyd,. P. L. 
Butler, J. T. 
Black, T. N. 
Bamett, T. E., k. 
Calloway, J. C, d. 
Cobble, J D. 
Connor. T. A., •!. 
Cottraim, A. W. 
Carroll, J. H. 

Craig, M. F. 
Cruse. M. C. 
dump, R M. 
Cathey, J. \V. 
Davidson, i:. C. 
Dulin, J. M., 0. 
Edleman, T. W 
Edwards, A. J. 
Edwards, E., k. 
Efird, J. C. 
Eflrd, J. E. 
Finley, M. K., w. 
Furr, John, d. 
Flow, E. 
Flow, J. M.. w. 
Fords, H. H. 
Gillespie, S. A. 
Gaisesen, W. G. 
Graham, J. R. 
Goodsen, H. M. 

civil. WAR TROOPS. 


Gillespie, A. M. 
Hurston, A. W. 
Harget, Harrison, d. 
Hargett, H. M., d. 
Hargett, Osborne. 
Harkey, T. B., d. 
Helms, J. XI.. 
Helms, J. W. 
Helms, H. M., c. 
Hopkins, P. 
Hudson, J. H. 
Holden, E. M.. d. 
Hilton, S. H. 
Henderson, W. M. F. 
Hunter, J. W., w. 
HartiS, M. A. 
Hartis, A. L. 
Holbrook, A. 
Johnson, W. P. 
Jennings, 0. J. 
Jordan, B. P. 
King, R. R. 
Lewis, C. J. 
Lewis, J. M. 
Morris, G. C. 
Martin, Edward. 
McCall, J. M. 
McCarver, Jas. 
McNeely, T. N., w. 
McLeod, J. M., w. 
McCall, J. A. 
McGinnis, John. 
McDoughall, M. 
McCall, Wm. 
McCarver, Alex. 
Noles, A. T., d. 
Noles, W. A. 
Orr., J. A., k. 
Orr, N. D., w. 
Orr, J. J., k. 
Parks, J. L., c. 
Potts, T. E. 
Potts, C. A. 
Pholan, J. 
Page, E. M. 

Peach, H. 
Rea, J. M. 
Rea, D. n. 
Robson, Cr, M. 
Reenhardt, J. F. 
Rea, W. A. 
Rea, R. R. 
Rea, Robt. 
Rea, J. L. 
Sparrow, J. S. 
Smith, J. W. 
Stanis, J. B. 
Schneider, G. 
Sanders, W. H. 
Starns, C. R., c. 
Steele, W. G. 
Stucker, Christian. 
Tye, W. B., deserted. 
Tomberlen, B. M., w. 
Thompson, J. M., d. 
Taylor, A. W. 
Taylor, Art, deserted. 
Taylor, J. C. 
Taylor, J. A. 
Taylor, J. M. 
Tomlln, J. 
Taylor, W. F. 
Tredermick, W. 8., k. 
Tredermick, N. P. 
Tredermick, J. R. 
Thompson, R. G. 
Underwood, S. M. 
VanPelt, J. N. 
Vance, J. C, d. 
Ualle, P. O. 
Watson, W. A. 
White, J. S. 
Wilson, John. 
Williamson, J. A. 
Werner, L. 
Wallace, M. L., k. 
Williford, T. F. 
Walker, J. B. 
Wallace, Wm., k. 
Williams, J. M. 



Yardle, J. B. 

Whitaker, H. A., k. 

Yardle, W. A. 

Yardle, W. H. Total, 145; from other counties, 56; 

8 wounded; killed, 9. 


W. L. Davidson, Captain. 
T. J. Cahill, Captain. 
Wm. J. Kerr, wounded 1862; killed 1863. 
Tim P. Mollay. 

Lieutenants: I. E. Brown, J. A. Torrance, B. H. Davidson, ThoB 
P. Mollay, P. J. Kirby. 


Jas. M. McLure. 

Paul James. 

Al. LeLain. 

W. G. W. Herbert. 

W. Wedlock. 

S. N. Jamison. 

James Clark. 

Thomas Bundle. 
Alexander, Wm., d. 
Anderson, Richard. 
Ayers, A. G., k. '62. 
Bynum, Rufus, d. 
Buglin, Patrick. 
Beard, J. H., d. 
Bennett, G. W. 
Bennett, J. G. 
Berry, Jas. 
Bolton, G. B. 
Brannan, Patrick. 
Brinkle, John, w. 
Brinkle, Thomas. 
Burnett, J. S.. d. '62. 
Brown, J. J., w. '63. 
Billow, W. H., d. '62. 
Brown, Alex. 
Brown, Nicholas. 
Donovan, Philip. 
Donovan, Jeremiah. 
Dasinger, Francis. 
Dobson, Hiram. 
Davidson, J. W. 
Davidson, B. W. 

Elliott, Wm. 
Elmore, J. T., d. 
EUer, John. 
Edmirton, J. R., k. 
Frick, Jacob. 
Fogleman, P. L. 
Gallagher, Arch., w. 
Claywell, J. F., d. '62. 
Carricker, Levi, d. '62. 
Caskill, Tim. L. 
Cable, Lewis. 
Oonder, Wiley, k. '63. 
Colling, John. 
Chancy, John. 
Calder, Wm., Sr. 
Calder, Wm., Jr. 
Cashion, W. M., w. 
Cashion, Thomas, k. 
Carter, F. B.. d. 
Gallagher, Jas. 
Gleason, Jas. W. 
Grady, ,Tas. 
Griffin, Thomas. 
Goodman, S. C. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Graves, A. C. 
Grant, R. W. 
Hartsell, J. M., w. 
Howell, Jas. 
Howell, John. 
Howell, David, w. 
Harris, Francis, k. 
Hicks, T. W., w. 
Halshouser, A. R. 
Hanna, J. M., d. 
Humble, David. 
Icenhour, P. B. 
Jackson, John. 
John, E. Edward, k. 
Jones, David, k. 
Jannison, R. J., w. 
Johnson, Thomas. 
Johnson, Rufus. 
Jamison, S. N. 
Kurtz, P. K. 
Kelley, Lawrence, w. 
Kanapum, A. E. 
Kirby, Patrick, w. 
Kisler, Wm. 
Kennedy, Jepe. 
Lane, A. D. 
Mason, Wiley J. 
McConnell, Thomas. 
McClellan, W. A. 
McGarar, Wm. W. 
Meredith, Stephen W. 
McGuire, John, k. 
McGinnis, George. 
Munsey, John. 
Mulson, Robt. 
McBean, John. 
Mason, W. B. 
McCJonnell, T. A., d. 
McConnell, A. M. 
Meredith, J. 
Newton, Eli. 
Newton, Meredith, d. 
Newton, John, k. 
Nail, Richmond, k. 
Nantz, A. E. 

Oliver, Calvin. 
Plyler, R. C. 
Packard, John. 
Petit, Jas. 
Patterson. J. E.. k. 
Quinn, Jas. 
Rhodes, Wm. 
Rafferty, Thos. 
Rogers, Jas. 
Rogers, J. C. 
Reynolds, John. 
Riddick, H. L. 
Riddick, J. A. 
Rolmer, W. C. 
Riggins, Robt. 
Sullivan, D. C. 
Stephens, M. 
Spears, Wm. H. 
Stewart, Thos. A. 
Sherrill, 1,. J. 
Seagraves, A C. 
Sanders, G. W., k. 
Sheridan, John, w. 
Stanning, Wm. 
Stroup, David, k. 
Spawl, A. B. 
Skinner, S. L. 
Sullivan. D. C. 
Staly, John. 
Staly, W. Y. 
Towey, Lewis. 
Vincent, Jas. B. 
Varker, Wm., w. 
Vance, Richard. 
Vaughn, H. J. 
Weaver, Wm. 
Wilson, Lewis. 
Woodard, v\^. L., d. 
Williamson, D. J. 
Whalon, Roderick, w. 
Wilkerson, W. 
Wilkerson, J. H. 
Winecoff, J. T.. k. 
Washam, J. B., d. 

Total, 154. 





T. H. Brem, Captain. 

James Qraham, Captain. 

A. B. Williams, Captain, w. 

Adbon Alexander, Lieutenant, w. 

T. L. Seigle, Lieutenant, w. 

H. A. Albright, Lieutenant 

J. S. Davidson, Sergeant. 

Dennis Collins, Sergeant. 

J. L. Hoffman, Sergeant. 

R. V. Gudger, Sergeant. 

J. E. Albright, Sergeant. 

R. P. Chapman, Sergeant, w. 

J. P. Smith, Sergeant. 

Moses Blackwelder, Corporal, d. 

D. M. L. Faunt, Corporal. 

Patrick Lyons, Corporal. 

Mathero Chapman, Corporal. 

M. A. Henderson, Corporal. 

W. W. Shelby, Corporal. 

Wm. S. Williams, Corporal. 

Dan W. McLean, Corporal. 

J. N. Peoples, Sergeant, d. 

James W. Murray, Bugler. 

R. R. Peoples, Guidon. 

Wm. H. Runfelt. 
Abemethy, Jas. 
Abernethy, Clem H. 
Baldwin, Alfred. 
Beatty, Wm. 
Beatty, J. W. 
Bridgers, W. B. 
Bums, Jas. 
Brackett, Wm. 
Broadway, Whltson. 
Buff. Henry. 
Baker, J. B. 
Bray, Winfield M. 
Cannon, Fred. 
Cannon, Sid. 
Cannon, Joseph, d. 
Carroll, Francis, c. 
Connell, S. C. 
Chapman, A. H. 

Chapman, Wm. 
Chapman, Peter. 
Chapman, A. J., d. 
Costener, Jacob. 
Carter, Jas. 
Canips, John. 
Canips, Henry. 
Christenburg, A. B., d. 
Cannon, Wm. S., c. 
Canster, Martin L. 
Crane, Madison C. 
Carter, Jas. N. 
Culer, J. A. J. 
Crane, Wm. 
Cannell, Jas. H. 
Chalkley, W. P. 
Christenburg, A. B., d. 
Doyle, Bernard. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Dunlap, Saml N. 
Dobbin, Mark H. 
Ellington, Werley P. 
Farley, A. 
Fite, J. U. 
Fite, Robt. D. R. 
Fox, W. T. 
Faunt, Sam'l. 
Faunt, D. L. 
Fancy, John. 
Dawns, Robt. R., d. 
Fullbright, J. K. 
Fullbright, D. B.. d. 
Fullbright, M., k. 
Fullbright, K. 
Fite, Sam'l, d. 
Flowers, Jessie, deserted. 
Goodman, John. 
Grigg, B. W. 
Grier, W. M. 
Grier, Marshal. 
Grier, C. E. 
Heavner, J. J. 
Hoover, T. H. 
Hoover, J. D. 
Hoover, W. G. 
Hoover, W. H. 
Hoover, J. T. 
Howell, Jas. 
Hinkle, J. L. 
Hawkins, J. A. 
Hawkins, J. P. 
Hawkins, Albert. 
Herrvell, R. 
Hoyle, D. R. 
Hunter, R. B. 
Johnson, Daniel. 
Johnson, R. L. 
Johnson, Joseph. 
Jenkins, Aaron. 
Jenkins, Tillman. 
Jenkins, Saml. 
Jenkins, Edward. 
Kaloram, Thos. 
Knuipe, Henry. 

Kean, J. H. 
Kean, J. B. 
Kean, S. W. 
Kean, R. F. 
Lattimer, A. M. 
Lane, J. D. 
Laughlin, D. P. 
Ledford, John. 
Lindsey, W. G. 
Lamb, Mike, deseried. 
Lawler, John, deserted. 
Lineberger, J. M. 
Lawing, A. W. 
Lawing, J. W. 
Marrable, W. M. 
Meaghim, W. H. 
Marshal, Jas. H. 
McCausland, W. B. 
McCorkle, Robt. 
McKinney, Sam'l. 
Moad, John. 
Murphy, Daniel C. 
Motz, Mayfield. 
Needham, Thos., d. 
Morris, J. sS., w. 
Newton, Robt 
Nantz, R. B. 
Nantz, Calvin. 
Nantz, R. R. 
Potts, Wm. P. 
Potts, Jas. A. 
Potts, A. W. 
Pool. A. W. 
Pool, J. T. 
Parker, Wm. 
Queen, Joseph. 
Queen, Laban. 
Roberts, J. W. 
Richard, J. W. 
Rodden. T. B. 
Scott. Nelson. 
Seagle. G. W. 
Shaw, J. G. 
Shelby, J. M. 
Shaw, Wm. 



Sloan, J. W. 
Sloan, Sam% k. 
bioan, Robt., w. 
Sloan, Robt., d. 
Smith, J. A. 
Smith, Jacob. 
Smith, George. 
Smith, W. M. 
Stillwell, Jacob, k. 
Stuly, J. J., c. 
Stant, S. G. 
Summerville, J. W. 
Tallent, Daniel. 
Terepaugh, J. H. 
Todd, Wm. 
Underwood, J. S. 

Underwood, J. O. 
Underwood, Jas. 
Underwood, Reuben. 
Underwood, J. R. 
Underwood, David. 
Veno, Francis. 
Watta^ C. L. 
Watts, Charles. 
Walls, A. A. 
White, D. W. 
White, A. S. 
West. Wm. P. 
Will, John. 

Total, 179. 



E. A. Ross, Captain; promoted Major, k. 
W. L. Hand, First Lieutenant, w. 
C. W. Alexander, Second Lieutenant, retired. 
R. H. Hand, Lieutenant, w. 
W. B. Taylor, Lieutenant, w. 

J. G. McCorkle, Orderly Sergeant; promoted Lieutenant Com- 
pany E.' 

S. J. McElroy, Sergeant, w. 

R. B. Alexander, Sergeant, w. 

J. M. Simms, Quartermaster Sergeant, c. 

T. W. Neely, Sergeant, w. 

T. C. Ruddock, Corporal, c. 

W. S. Icehower, Corporal, k. 

J. R. Gribble, Corporal, w. 

E. Lewis, Corporal, w. 

M. R. Alexander, w. 
M. Mc. Alexander, k. 
M. A. Alexander, k. 
J. G. Alexander, k. 
W. S. Alexander. 
R. C. Alexander. 
J. N. Alexander, w. 
H. W. Allen, w. 
C. A. Allen. 
L. Allen. 

P. S. Auten. k. 
E. L. S. Barnett. 
J. F. Barnett 
J. L. Barnett, k. 
M. F. Blakely. 
J. J. Blakely. k. 
James Byrum. 
C. C. Brigman, w. 
J. M. Black. 
T. J. Black, w. 

civil. WAR TROOPS. 


:Bzekiel Black. 

J. R. Bigham. w. 

J. W. Bigham, w. 

W. J. Brown, p. sergeant, w. 

J. Creasman, 

J. F. Cochrane. 

M. E. Cheshire. 

W. H. Campbell. 

H. D. Duckworth, w. 

J. A. Duckworth. 

J. C. Deaton. 

Daniel Dulin, w. 

Jack Darnell, w. 

J. H. Eamheardt, k. 

J. M. £>arnheardt, p. to d. s., w. 

W. C. Earnheardt. 

S. O. Earnheardt. 

G. R. Ewing. w. 

W. E. Ewing. w. 

W. A. Elliott, k. 

J. P. Elms, p. Lt, k. 

R. H. Flow, w. 

I. S. A. Frazier, w. 

J. W. Fisher. 

W. C. Ford. 

J. S. Galloway, k. 

W. W. Gray. 

J. A. Gibson. 

D. P. Glenn, w. 

F. C. Glenn. 
Joshua Glover, w. 
R. A. Groves. 

J. S. Garrison, k. 
W. J. Goodrum, k. 
C. H. Goodrum. 
H. H. Hill, w. 
Milton Hill. 
Miles Hill, w. 
Monroe Hovis, w. 
A. J. Hand. 
I. S. Henderson. 
T. M. Henderson. 

G. T. Herron, w. 

J. H. Hutchison, k. 
T. L. Holms, k. 

T. H. Hunter. 
D. P. Hunter. 
M. B. Hunter. 
J. M. Herron. 
G. T. Hinson. k. 
T. M. Howard. 
W. C. Harris. 

F. Hobbs, w. 

N. O. Harris, w. 
L. Hutspeth. 
Alfred Johnston. 
David Jenkins, w. 
Jacob Jenkins. 
J. D. Kerns. 
Wm. Kennedy, w. 
Thos. Knipper. 
J. A. King. 
C. C. King, w. 

B. Kinney. 

R. J. Monteith. 

H. L. D. Monteith. 

M. O. Monteith, k. 

J. H. McConnell, w. 

J. F. McConnell, k. 

T. Y. McConnell. 

J. H. McWhirter. w. 

James McWhirter, k. 

R. F. McGinn. 

J. A. McCall, w. 

J. H. Montgomery, p. Lt, w. 

S. A. McGinnis, w. 

Isaac Norment, w. 

Jack Norment. 

G. A. Neal. k. 
A. H. Newell. 
J. F. Orr. 

N. C. N. Orr. 
J. E. Orman. 
Dan Powell, k. 
H. M. Pettus. 
J. W. Pettus. 
Stephen Pettus. 

C. Paysour. w. 
Peter Paysour. 
T. A. Prim. k. 



R. L. Query. 
S. F. Query. 
B. W. Ruddock, w. 
B. M. Ruddock. 
Peyton, Roberta^ w. 
M. B. Raybom. 
R. A. Ross. 
E. C. Ratchford. 
J. M. Stowe« w. 
J. C. Stowe, k. 
R. F. Simpson. 
J. W. Simpson. 
J. S. Smith, k. 
R. C. C. Taylor. 
H. S. Taylor. 

Total, 154; killed, 29, wounded 

J. Q. Taylor, k. 
J. C. Thomason. 
Angus Wingate, k. 
M. Wingate. 
C. C. Wingate. 
W. A. Wallace, w. 
S. H. Williams. 
Taylor Wright, w. 
B. A. Withers^ w. 
J. L. West. 
W. M. Wilson. 
J. Steele, k. 
J. H. Bingham, w. 
A. J. Hunter. 



J. S. A. Nicholas, Captain, 0. 
Wm. J. Kerr, Captain. 
J. B. Clanton, Lieutenant. 
W. S. Turner, Lieutenant. 
W. N. S. Means, Lieutenant, k. 
W. F. Rozzell, Lieutenant. 
James F. Alexander, Lieutenant. 


D. W. McDonald, w. 

J. E. Goodman, k. 

J. H. McDonald. 

J. S. Means^ d. 

R. S. Wilson, c. 

A. J. Hunter, Sergeant. 
Abemethy, E. R. 
Alexander, Peter. 
Auten, S. W. 
Ashley, M. 
Adams, H. A. 
Baker, Aaron. 
Baker, Wm. M. 
Ballard, Benj. 
Bradshaw, J. T. 
Beal, Charles, c. 
Beal, John, c. 
Bird, W. L., w. and pr. 

Bass, Jas. A., w. 
Bass, Buston, c. 
Beek, Wm. A. 
Baker, Joel M. 
Bradley, J. L., c. 
Beatty, J. W., c. 
Bunier, J., w. 
Christy, J. H., k. 
Clark, J. A., k. 
Cathey, W., w. and pr. 
Carmick, J. 
Campbell, o. W., c. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Culberson, J. W., c. 

Ciemmons, K. R. 

Dienton, John. 

Dixon, W. W.. k. 

Edwards, Shepherd. 

Edwards, Marshcd, c. 

Bller, A. 

Eller, S. W. 

Finger, John, w. 

Grier, T. H. 

Garrison, Alex., c. 

Hartline, Andrew. 

Hartline, Adam. 

Harris, C. C. 

Holdslaw, R. 

Hinton, A. J. 

Hollingsworth, J. B. 

Hartgrue, W. W., w. 

Hartgrue, R. D. S., w. and c. 

Hill, J. W., w. 

Helms, E. T., k. 

Hartline, P., w. 

Hartline, D. L., w. 

Hartline, G. H., d. 

Jameson, J. W., c. 

Jameson, T. J., w. 

Jameson, J. W., c. 

Johnston, J. H., c. 

Kyles, Fielding, c. 

Kyles, Wm. 

King, Q. 

Kestler, P. H. 

Kyle, P. H. 

Led well, David. 

Ldnebarger, Marshall. 

Lawson, Hudson. 

Loften, Martin. 

Lambert, Wm. 

Lewis, Lindsey, w. 

Lambert, J. M. 

McQuay, S., d. 

McQuay, W. H., k. 

McClure, C. A. w. and c. 

McOorkle, H. P., c. 
Mitcha, John, c. 
Martin, W., w. 
Murdock, W. D. 
Miller, J. F. 
McLure, J., d. 
Maddan, G. W. 
Munday, O. M. 
Mathison, Jas. 
Narson, J. G., c. 
Null, J. T. 
Nesbitt, J. G.. d. 
Neal, G. A., w. and c. 
Ostwalt, Francis, c. 
Pucket, T. J., w. 
Pucket, W. C, w. 
Pool, G. S. 
Pennix, J. W. 
rennix, J. A. 
Rives, J. R. 
Reid, J. C, k. 
Rhyne, David, c. 
Ruis, W. R., w. 
Richley, W. L., k. 
Rozzell, J. T. 
btone, A. 
Stinson, J. B. 
Sherrell, W. 
Smith, D. J. 
Griffin, G., d. 
Turner, J. W. 
Wilson, J. R. 
Walker, B., k. 
Walker, L. L., c. 
Walker, J. H., c. 
Walker, Jas. H. 
Wingate, J. w. and c. 
Wingate, T., w. 
Williamson, E. Y., c. 
Younts, R. C, k. 
York, G. W.. c. 

Total, 121. 





W. L. Grier, CaiKain. 

P. J. Lowrie, Lieatenant, d. 

C. B. Bojoe, d. 

J. B. Lowrie, k. 

J. M. SaTille. 

J. M. Knox. 

R. B. Lonrie. 


R. D. SaviUe, w. 
P. M. Clark, w. 
J. S. P. Caldwell. 
C. E. Bell. 
Aus. Cotchkip, c. 
Thos. Campbell, k. 
J. T. Smith. 

Abernatnj, Elig. 
Ashbj, J. T. 
Alexander, J. A. 
Andrews, E. M. 
Ashley, Wm., c. 
Bailej, Wm. 
Brown, A. M. 
Belk, Wm. 
Boyd, J. J. 
Boyd, J. A. 
Boyd, David. 
Brown, J. W. 
Blair, 8. W. 
Black, J. B. 
Bigart, Jas. 
Bams, Robt. 
Bryant, Sydney. 
Boyce. Hugh. 
Blankenship, J. N. 
L^nkenship, T. G. 
Blankenship, S. P. 
Caruthers, J. A. 
Caruthers, J. B.. d. 
Chentenberg, C. E., d. 
Coffe, B. M.. w. 
Cooper, J. M., c. 
Crowel, E. M. 

Campbell, J. C. 
Cobb, C. A. 
Clark, W. A., d. 
Carpenter, J. C. 
Carpenter, W. B. 
Cox, EIL 
Clark. P. M. 
Drewry, A. G. 
Deggarhart, J. V., c. 
Deggarhart, J. L. 
Dallarhit, J. D., d. 
Dixon, Hugh M., d. 
Ettres, J. H., d. 
Edwards, J. M., c. 
Ellis, Dan, c. 
£>amhardt, Geo. 
Pite, W. J. 
Greer, Z. B., d. 
Greer, B. S. 
Harris, R. H. 
Hall, R. B. 
Harris, F. C, w. 
Harris, J. C. 
Harris, J. H. 
Hannel, A. R., k. 
Harmon, Levi, c. 
Hannon, J. N. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Hays, J. B., c. 
Hargett, Aleg. 
Herron, J. W. 
Hill, C. H. 
Humphrey, T. L. 
Haron, S. L., c. 
Hanna, J. W., c. 
Hatchup, A., c. 
Hall, N. C. 
Henry, J. B. 
Henry, B. G. 
Hedgepath, Geo. 
Harris, Morris. 
Holland, Robt. 
Hainant, Henry, w. 
Hoffman, Miles. 
Henderson, W. R. 
Ingle, Peter, w. 
Johnson, J. W. 
King, J. A. 
Keenan, Peter. 
Key. Albert, w. 
Kerr, R. O., d. 
Knox, W. H., w. and c. 
Kilpatrick, W. F. 
Lourie, R. B. 
Madden, J. P. 
McQuaig, James. 
Mincel, Willis, w. 
Morrison, W. T. 
McMillan, J. C. 
McQuaise, Jas., c. 
Marshburn, J. M., w. 
Neely, J. J. 
Porter, R. C, w. 

Price, J. A., d. 
Peppen, John. 
Russell, J. C. 
Rice, J. S. 
Rhine, A. M. 
Rachelle, J. B. 
Reid, W. M. 
Rumell, J. C. 
Ross, R. A., d. 
Smith, J. W. 
Smith, T. J. 
Smith, John L. 
Smith, A. J. 
Sloop, Alex. 
Snider. J. A., k. 
Snead, Frank. 
Squire, J. A. 
Sanders, Jacob. 
Sumney, J. B. 
Sumney, George, c. 
Scott, R. S. 
Tarbifield, Jas. 
Taggart, J. C. 
Thuner, E. A.^ w. 
Thuner, J. T., w. 
Watt, C. B. 
Wingate, R. G. 
Wilkerson, W. H. 
Wilkerson, Jno. 
Warren, T. W., c. 
Walker, P. L., w. 
Watters, Allen. 
Young, J. H., d. 

Total, 137; killed, ^; wounded, 14.. 



A. A. Erwin, Captain, w. 
W. W. Robinson, Captain, w. 
J. D. McLean, Lieutenant. 
J. R. Erwin, Lieutenant 
Joe Thompson, Lieutenant, k. 
R. S. Warren, Lieutenant. 
W. A. Presley, Lieutenant. 



W. S. Alexander, Ldeutenant 
W. S. M. Hart, Ldeutenant, d. 
E. Smith, Lieutenant 
H. J. Walker, Lieutenant, w. 
J. M. Choat. 


F. C. Youngblooa, cr. 

F. L. Erwin. 

J. W. Todd. 

R. L. Swann, k. 

J. M. Knox, k. 

Jas. R. Wingate, k. 

Jas. F. Knox, w. 

Alexander, Aswold. 
Alexander, H. C, k. 
Alexander, Ossil. 
Alexander, O. S. P., k. 
Alexander, M. C. 
Alchison. J. C, d. 
Adair, Thos. 
Adair, Wm. 
Brown, Jas. W. 
Bailes, G. S., d. 
Baker, Green C, k. 
Baker, J. C. 
Bartlette, W. F., w. 
BerryhlU, J. J. 
Berryhill, Jas. L., d. 
Blackwelder, A., w. 
Bowden, S. D. 
Boyd, Jepe A. 
.Boyd, John, d. 
Boyd, J. G. W., w. and d. 
Brimer, Alfred, k. 
Brown, C. W., k. 
Brown, R. E. 
Bryan, T. J. 
Bigham, M. S. 
Beeman, G. C. 
Barnett, R. S. 
Bartlett, J. H., w. 
Clark, A. A., d. 
Crawford, Micajah. 
Caruthers, J. K. 

Cathey, Henry, w. 
Choate, A. D^ k. 
Choate, R. W., w. 
Choate, Wm., w. 
Clanton, W. D. 
Clark, R. F., d. 
Crowell, S. W., c. 
Damall, J. J. 
Davis. J. C. 
Edwards, M. A., w. 
Erwin, A. R. 
Erwin, J. C. d. 
Erwin, J. M., w. 
Ellis, Wm. 
Frazier, Richard. 
Frazier, W. F. 
Frazier, Isaac A. 
Frazier, J. T. 
Flenekin, J. B., d. 
Freeman. W. H.. w. 
Gallant, J. A., w. 
Glover, T. M., d. 
Grier, E. C. 
Grier, S. M., k. 
Grier, Thos. M. 
Groves, J. R., c. 
Gamer, Wm. 
Hail, W. H. 
Heitman, O. B. 
Hawkins, J. P. 
Hall, W. H., w. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Hawkins, F. A., w. 
Hotchkip, S. A. 
x..xl, W. H. 
Jamison, E. A. 
Johnson, H. F. 
Kerr, John B., w. 
Kimball, J. L., k. 
Kirkpatrick, J. F., w. 
Knox, J. D. 
Knox. J. N. k. 
Knox, T. N. 
Kerr, J. T., D. P. 
Liberman, C. S., k. 
Marks, S. H., w. 
Marks, T. H. 
McGinn, I. H., w. and c. 
McGinn, N. C, w. and c. 
McGinn, W. a., w. 
McGinn, J. N. 
McLean, J. L. 
McRumb, S. W. 
McRumb, S. J. S., k. 
Mulwee, J. W. 
Morrison, J. E., d. 
Moser, H. S., k. 
Maness, J. A. 
McConnell, Jas. H. 
Neagle, Jas. H., w. and c. 
Nicholson, J. R. 
Nevins, J. G., w. 
Orr., G. B.. k. 
Okely, C, w. 
Parks, D. K. 
Parks, G. L., d. 

Total, 152; killed 20; wounded 32 

Porter, S. A. 
Prather, E. L., k. 
Powell, A. T. 
Prag, W. J. 
Parker, S. S., d. 
Reed, J. W. 
Sterling, J. W. 
Sheffield, J. M. 
Sloan, G. W., w. 
Smith, D. H. 
Smith, Ed. 
Smith, J. W. 
Sturgan, C. S.. w. 
Spencer, Clark. 
Stowe, R. A. 
Torrence, W. B. 
Taylor, W. J., w. 
Thomburg, F. B., k. 
Thomburg, G. J. 
Thomburg, H. M. 
Thomburg, S. L., d. 
Tlcer, R. C. S., k. 
Tradewice, N. P. 
Thompson, W. J. 
Todd, J. A. W., d. 
Taylor, A. A. 
Walker, L. J., w. 
White, Wm. 
Wilson, J. E., k. 
Wingate, N. J., w. 
Wolfer, H. F.. w. 
Wryfleld, J. R., w. and d. 
Wiley, J. 0. 
Watt, W. T. 
Weaver, G. H. 



J. T. Kell, Captain, w. 

B. F. Morrow, Captain. 

J. G. Witherspoon, Captain, k. 
W. B. Ardrey, Captain, w. 

C. E. Bell, Lieutenant 
N. D. Orr, Lieutenant 



J. T. Downs, Lieutenant w. 


J. T. Lee, Sergeant, k. 
A. L. DeArmond, w. 
A. B. Hood, Sergeant, k. 
J. W. McKinney, Ck>rporal. 
J. P. Bales, Corporal. 
H. T. Cotlharp, Corporal. 
A. J. Dunn, Corporal, k. 

Adkins, W. H., w. 
Adams, Wm. 
Alexander, S. D., w. 
Alexander, T. P. 
Alexander, J. L. 
Alexander, J. M., k. 
Allen, J. W., d. 
Anderson, Wm. d. 
Baker, J., k. 
Bailey, E. D. 
Bailey, J. A. 
Bailey, Wm. 
Bales, E. M., w. 
Bales, J. P. 
Bamett, R. C, k. 
Barefoot, N. G.. w. 
Bentley, M. W. H. 
Bell, N. J. 
Black, J. N., k. 
Black, J. S., d. 
Black, J. H., k. 
Black, T. A., d. 
Bradston, V. M. 
Brewer, J. H. 
Bowman, R. 
Boyoe, S. T. 
Brinkley H. 
Bristow, J. C. 
Church, Eli. 
Church, Martin. 
Coffey, A. S. 
Crowell, Isreal. 
Culp, A. A., w. 
Davis, G. W., k. 
\ Downs, W. H. 

Dixon, S. L., w. 
Duckworth, G. P. 
Dunn, Geo., c. 
Dunn, A. S. 
Dunn. S. W. T.. d. 
Ezzeil, M. F., d. 
Gamble, Jas., d. 
George, E. P. 
George, Prepley, d. 
Glover, B. C, w. 
Griffin, J. J., w. and d. 
Griffith, A. B.. k. - 
Graham, J. W. 
Hall, J. P. 
Hall, A. G. 
Hall, R. B. 
Harts, J. H., d. 
Hart, W. S.. k. 
Henderson, W. M., d. 
Henderson, W. T., d. 
Hood, W. L., w. 
Howie, J. H. 
Howie, Wm. 
Holmes, B., d. 
Jennings, G. W., w. 
Johnston, D. E. 
Johnston, S. A. 
Johnston, J. H. 
Johnston. G. W. 
Kirkpatrick, H. Y.. d. 
Lee, S. B., d. 
Lee, J. A., d. 
Lewis, W. H. 
Massingale, R. H. 
McLean. Thos., w. 


I *• 





\ \ 


s?- ^ 


^ .H 



civil, WAR TROOPS. 


McCurry. J. A. 
McKinney, R. M. 
McMallen, J. H., k. 
McQuaig, J. 
McRea, James, k. 
Miller, D. M.. w. 
Milton, J. G. 
MorHs, W. T., d. 
Morris, J. T.. d. 
Myers, James. 
Nichols, B. G. 
Nelson, J. H. 
Orr, T. J. 
Patterson, M. S. 
Pierce, Orren L. 
Pierce, J. M. 
Pierce J. W. 
Pierce, J. R., d. 
Rayner, L., k. 
Ray, J. M., k. 
Richardson, W. W. 
Robinson, W. H., m. 
Robinson, J. R., k. 
Rap, W. J. 
Rap, J. N., k. 
Russell, W. D. 
Saville, J. C. 
Sample, Wm. 
Shelby, D. H. 
Simmons, — . 
Smith, W. S. 
Smith, S. B., d. 
Smith, J. D. 
Smith, J. S.. w. 


Shaw, Alex. 
Simpson, M. S. 
Simpson, J. 
Squires, J. W. 
Squires, J. B., k. 
Stanford, M. T. 
Stancil, A. G. 
Steel, A. F., k. 
Stephenson, J. R., 
Tart, Henry. 
Tedder, Sid., k. 
Thomasson, J. L., k. 
Thomas, W. B. 
Thompson, L. 
Thompson, Lewis. 
Thompson, Lee, d. 
Thompson, Jas., d. 
Trower, T. J. 
Walston, S. L., d. 
Webb. Wm., d. 
West, Wm. 
Weeks, R. B.. k. 
Witherspoon, M. T., k. 
Wolf, J. N. 
Wolf, R. B. 
Wolf, G. D., d. 
Williams, W. E. 
Yeargan, W. 
Young, S. T. 
Young, J. A. 

Total, 150; killed, t6; wounded, 16; 
died. 23. 



W. R. Myers, Captain. 
G. M. Norment, Captain, w. 
J. M. Lawing, Lieutenant. 
A. A. Cathey, Lieutenant. 
A. H. Creswell, Lieutenant. 
R. S. Reed, Lieutenant, k. 
Jas. C. Todd, Captain, w. 
J. N. Abernathy, k. 

1 62 



H. C. Luoaa^ Sergeant 
Joe B. McGhee, Sergeant 
J. L. Todd, Ordnance Sergeant 
J. W. Dayenport Corporal, k. 
Geo. L. Campbell, Corporal, d. 
Jas. A. Todd, Corporal, k. 
T. A. Johnson, w. 

Alcorn, A. S.« w. 
Alexander, J. O. D., k. 
Abemethy, C. W.. w. 
Abernethy, J. N.. k. 
Anderson, C. J., k. 
Asbury, J. R.. w. 
Bain, J. J., d. 
Beatty, A. W., w. 
Beatty, Samuel, d. 
Beatty, John, w. 
Bennett, Thos.. w. 
Berryhill, J. H., w. 
Bailiff, Fred. k. 
Brotherton, John, w. 
Brotherton, Wm. 
Burgwyn, Fred. 
Bolton, J. C. 
Cathey, J. L., w. 
Cathey, W. H.. d. 
Clark, John, k. 
Cathey, Wm. A. 
Clark, Almirive, k. 
Cox, W. C. L., w. 
Carpenter, Jas. k. 
Downs, Frank. 
Duan, T. J., w. 
Duglass, S. A. 
Elliott, H. W., k. 
Btters. P. P., d. 
Btters, H. P., d. 
Brving, John. 
Faires, G. N., d. 
Frazier, I. A. 
Garren, Andrew. 
Gregg, D. H., d. 
Greenhill, Lawson, k, 
Hayes, S. L., k. 

Ho vis, Moses, w. 
Hipp, Andrew, d. 
Hipp, Pinkney, d. 
Hipp, John. d. 
Hipp, Wm. 
Hipp, J. M. 
Hoover, A. B., w. 
Hutchison, S. B. 
Johnston, D. H., d. 
Johnston, F. E., k. 
Jarrett, Samuel, k. 
King, Thos.. w. 
King, Ezekiel. 
Lawing, J. S., w. 
Lawing, J. M., d. 
Lynch, Robt. 
McGhee, T. J., d. 
Mills, W. T. 
McGhee, J. T., d. 
McCord, W. C. w. 
Means, G. W. d. 
Means, J. K. P.. k. 
McCall, Jas., w. 
McCall, Alex., c. 
McGahey, T. C. 
Nicholson, John. 
Odell, J. C. d. 
Odell, G. W., d. 
Puckett, J. H.. d. 
Parks, George, w. 
Plckerell, J. H.. w. 
Phillips, J. J., k. 
Proctor, J. A., m. 
Rodden, J. J., w. 
Reld, Robt S.. w. and d. 
Rosick, G. W. 



Scott, W. A., k. 
Shelby, J. L., k. 
Stephens, A. B., d. 
Stephens, R. T., w. and d. 
Sapford, J. M., k. 
Sanford, Jas. O. 
Terres» James, w. 
Todd, G. P., k. 
Todd, G. N., k. 
Todd, C. B.. w. 

Todd, G. C, w. 
Todd, J. L., k. 
Todd, J. W. S. 
Todd, D. S. 
Todd, L. N. 
Watters, J. G., c. 
Winston, C. W. 

Total, 100; killed, 26; wounded, 32. 


D. G. Maxwell, Captain. 

H. M. Dixon, Captain. 

J. M. Davis, captain. 
Alexander, Thos. M., captain, d. 
Alexander, J. G., lieut. 
Alexander, J. K.« w. 
Alexander, Licander. 
Alexander, C. P. 
Alexander, A. P., k. 
Alexander, S. W. 
Alexander, G. W. 
Auten, J. W., w. 
Barckley, A. C. 
Barckley, H. S. 
Brown, J. F. 
Brown, J. F., c. 
Brown, S. H., w. 
Benfield, H. S. 
Benfield, J. R. 
Blount, J. M. 
Blakely, W. J., w. 
Blakely, A. C. w. 
Burgwyn, W. H. S., lieut 
Benfield, B. E., c. 
Baker. J. R. 
Biggers, W. A. 
Beayer, J. M. 
Cheshire, C. M., d. 
Cook, R. W., d. 
Cook, J. P., k. 
Caldwell, G. M., sergt., w. 
Caldwell, H. W., k. 
Caldwell, J. M., d. 

Caldwell, R. N. 
Caldwell, D. G., 4. 
Caldwell, D. P., d. 
Caldwell, D. A., lieut. 
Campbell, W. H., k. 
Cochrane, R. B. 
Cochrane, N. R. J., c. 
Cochrane, L. J., d. 
Campbell, C. M., c. 
Cochrane, J. L., sergt 
Cochrane, W. C, sergt., k. 
Deaton, L. L.. k. 
Dulin, D. H.. c. 
Dulin, John, sergt., k. 
Dulin, R. H., d. 
Dulin, J. C, d. 
Dulin, T. L. 
Dulin, Matthias, d. 
Dulin. W. W.. k. 
Davis, W. H. 
Dennis, J. T. 
Earnhardt, C. D., d. 
Earnhardt, S. O. 
Farris, M. C, w. 
Fesperman, M. W., d. 
Foard, J. C, k. 
Foard, C. A. 
Foard, Henry. 
Flow, T. J. 
Garrison, R. W., w. 



Garrison, J. W., w. 

Gibson. J. M.« k. 

Grier, J. O.. w. 

Hodges, P. B. 

Hodges, C. J. 

Hodges, W. G. 

Howie, S. B., w. 

Hunter, G. S.. w. 

Hunter, Hugh. 

Hunter, A. G., w. 

Hunter, J. M. 

Hunter, J. M. C, w. 

Hunter, Hester, k. 

Hunter, J. M. C. 

Hunter, R. C, d. 

Hunter, S. C, lieut., w. 

Hunter, R. H. 

Hutchison, J. R.. corporal. 

Hall, T. M. 

Hall, Amzi. 

Hooks, Dave. 

Hood, J. M. 

Hood, J. R. 

Hood, W. S., k. 

Hucks, D. W. 

Hucks, John. 

Harris, C. C. 

Harris, G. W., k. 

Harris, F. R., k. 

Herron, Calvin. 

Herron, Green, w. 

Herron, John. 

Houston, G. W., d. 

Irwin, G. C, d. 

Johnson, J. J. 

Jordan, Mc. H. 

Kirk, Wm., k. 

Kirk, J. C, w. 

Keenan, John, w. 

Kilough, Ed. 

Kerns, T. M. A., d. 

McCombs, Jas. 

Mason, J. J., w. 

Mason, R. C, d. 

McCall, C. N. 

McCall, D. H. 
McCall, R. W..d. 
McCall, Josiah F., k. 
McGinnis. j. J. 
McGinnis, 1. M. 
McLean. H. W.. d. 
McLure, James. 
Mclaughlin, W. J., w. 
McLaughlin, J. J., w. 
McKay, Robt W., w. 
Miller, H. M. W.. d. 
Miller, J. M., k. 
Miller, S. J., d. 
Montgomery, Leander. 
Montgomery, J. P. C, d. 
Morris, W. G., sergt, d. 
Morris, D. W. 
McCorkle, T. J., d. 
Maxwell, W. M. 
Morrison, S. N. 
Morrison, D. M. 
Morrison, Marshall. 
McCewon, J. M. 
Morris, J. C, k. 
McConnell, T. M. 
Neal, W. B. 
Noles, John, k. 
Newell, D. S. 
Nelson, R. A. 
iNelson, T. J. 
Osborne, Harvey, d. 
Orr, Franklin, d. 
Petre, Wm. 
Puckett, S. J. 
Puckett, J. M., k. 
Puckett, F. M. 
Pharr, T. P. 
Query, Wm. W., d. 
Query, Leander, sergt, w, 
Query, F. E. 
Query, F. N. 
Rodgers, J. R., k. 
Rodgers, T. P. 
Rodgers, J. W. 
Roday, T. A., d. 

civile WAR TROOPS. 


Rankin, C. S.. k. 
Rankin, W. W., w. 
Russ,'W. A. 
Roberts, S. L. 
Roberts W. A., w. 
Roberts, J. L., k. 
Ramsey, J. F. 
Rioe, J. W., w. 
Rea, James, w. 
Stuart, A. H. 
Shaffer, W. H., w. 
Shaffer, J. S., w. 
Solomon, Wm. R. 
Solomon, D. A., d. 
btinson, Dave, d. 
Thompson, J. W. 

Taylor, J. M., d. 
Taylor, W. J. 
Taylor, W. H. 
Tarlton, James D., w. 
Wilson, M. A., w. 
Wilson, R. L., d. 
Wilson. T. J., w. 
White, James A., lieut, d. 
White, B. F. 
Woodall, Thos., w. 
Wallace, A. W., k. 
Wilson. M. N., w. 
Yandle, M. N. 

Total, 181; 24 killed; 35 wounded; 
5 captured; 33 died. 



J. M. Potts, Captain. 

O. N. Brown, Captain, k. 

L. A. Potts, Captain, w. 

J. D. Brown, Captain. 

T. A. Wilson, Lieutenant, d. 

T. J. Kerns, Lieutenant. 

J. S. Johnston, Lieutenant. 

J. L. Jetton, Lieutenant. 

G. H. Beattie, Lieutenant, k. 

J. W. Pettus, Lieutenant, w. 

A. P. Torrance, Lieutenant, w. 

B. .A. Johnston, Lieutenant, k. 
W. W. Doherty, Lieutenant, k. 
J. R. Gillespie, Lieutenant. 

J. B. Alexander, Surgeon. 

G. M. Wilson, Sergeant, d. 

J. A. Gibbes, Sergeant, k. 

D. H. Fidler, Corporal, d. 

J. A. Bell, Corporal, d. 
Armstrong, M., w. 
Alexander, J. H. 
-rt-lexander, D. R., k. 
Alexander, T. L. 
Alexander, T. R., w. 
Alexander, W., d. 
Armor, T. S., w. 

Alcorn, T. P.. d. 
Bell, J. D., d. 
Barritt, v/. R.. d. 
Bamett, J. D. 
Bamett, J. W. 
Beard, Joseph, d. 
Beard, J. u.. w. 



Beard, J. M., k. 
Beard, J. F. M. 
Black, A. J. Lu, k. 
Black. J. C. 
Black. W. A., d. 
Black. 8.. d. 
Blakely. J. B.« d. 
Blakely, W. F. Bt, d, 
Blythe, J. W. 
Boyles, J. A. 
Brady, R. A^ d. 
Brown, B. F. 
Brown, H. W., k. 
Brown, J., d. 
Britt, John. 
Burleyson, Benj., w. 
Carrlgan, W. F. 
Cathey, J. W. 
Caldwell, W. W., c. 
Carpenter, J., c. 
Carpenter, J. C, w. 
Cochrane, J. C, w. 
Cox, Thomas, d. 
Chrestainbury, S. D., w. 
Dellinger, W. 
Deaton, J. R. 
Deaton, J. Z. 
Fesperman, J. C, d. 
Gardener, H. T., d. 
Gibbs, Jack, d. 
Gibson, J. J., d. 
Gibson, T. A., w. 
Goodrum, J. W., c. 
Gardener, D., k. 
Gardener, S. S. 
Grier. J. S., k. 
Harrison, W. H. 
Hastings, W. C. 
Henderson, W. F., k. 
Hendrix, J. M., w. 
Hendrix, W. P., d. 
Holbrooks, R. S. 
Hucks, S. L., w. 
Hunter, H. C, c. and d. 
Hunter, J. F.. k. 

Hagons, H. M.. k. 
Hamilton, J. R., k. 
Houstpn. H. L., d. 
Houston, J. M. 
Howie, A. J., w. 
Jenkins, A. B. 
Johnston, m. F., d. 
Jamison, J. R. 
Kelley, A. A., w. 
Kerns, J. A., a. 
Kerns, T. J. 
Knox. S. W., w. 
Lentz, R. R. 
Little, S. S. 
Lackey, T. S.. d. 
Leach, L., d. 
McAllister. C, w. 
McAuley, H. E., d. 
McAuley, A. E. 
McCoy, Albert 
McCoy, J. F., k. 
McCoy, C. W. 
McFadden, John, c. 
Miller, R. C, c. 
Montieth. a. A., k. 
Moore, R. D., d. 
McAuley, D. N., d. 
Morrison, W. S. 
Nantz, C. R., d. 
Nantz, D. J., w. 
Page, J. F., d. 
Puckett. E. M., w. 
Reid, J. L., d. 
Rhyne, J. o.. d. 
Rodgers, John, d. 
Sample, J. W., k. 
Sample, W. L., k. 
Sloan, T. A. 
Sloan, T. C. 
Steams, A. L.. d. 
ibteams, W. R. 
Stuart, S. J., w. 
Sellers, Eli. 
Solomon, D. A., k. 
Stroup, C. 



Stroup, M., k. 
Sample, E. A. 
Shaver, M., k. 
Shaw, A. 
Todd, J. A., k. 
Taylor, W. A., d. 
Tiffins, M. B. 
Torrance, J. A. 
Torrance, H. L. W.. k. 
Torrance, W. W., w. 
Tummice, L. G. 
Weddington, J. Y. 
Wallace, C. S., d. 
Warsham, Alex., k. 
Warsham, F. M., w. 

Warsham, R. R., w. 
Warsham, T. L., k. 
Warsham, W., d. 
White, J. H. 
Wiley, J., k. 
Williams, C. R., d. 
WilUams, F. C, d. 
Wilson, T. C, d. 
Wagstaff. J, R. 
Waiter, J. C. 
Goodrum, Zeb., d. 

Total, 149; died, 37; wounded, 26; 
killed, 27. 



J. K. Harrison, Captain. 

M. A. McCoy. 

N. M. Hart, Captain. 

J. I. Elms, Captain. 

Wm. M. Etitt, w. 

W. D. Elms, Captain, w. 

R. M. Oats. 

T. K. Sammond. 

E. H. Rupel. 

J. G. Price. 

E. M. Browell. 

J. G. McCoy. 

A. F. Yandle, w. 

J. Wilson. 

J. P. Elms, c. 

H. F. Icehower, k. 

D. C. Robinson, w. 

D. C. Robinson, Sergeant, w. 

J. C. Reed, Sergeant. 

J. O. Alexander, Corporal. 

D. M. Rigler, Lieutenant, w. 

Lourie Adams, w. 
Adaholt, M. L. w. 
Alexander, A. M., c. 
Alexander, J. A. 
Allen, J. H. 
Austin, J. W., k. 

Ballard, W. H., d. 
Barnhill, J. W. 
Bean, J. T. 
Black, J. P., k. 
Black, S. J. 



Blackard, Jas., k. 
BlanRenship, T. B., k. 
Blythe. S. W. 
Bridges, W. A., w. ana d. 
orown, T. G. 
Brown. J. K. P., c. 
Bruce, Jas., d. 
Burns. S. A. 
Brines. J. \». 
Crowell, E. M. 
Carpenter, Levi, c. 
Carpenter, Marcus, c. 
Cathey, B. G., w. and d. 
Clark. J. F., c. 
Clark. J. W.. k. 
Clark, Jas., k. 
Clontz, Ab.. k. 
Crocker, W. J., w. 
Cross, W. D. 
Devine, W. G. 
Dulin, T. S., w. 
Edwaras. J. A. 
Planlgan, B. F. 
Flowe, J. C, w. 
Freeman, J. J., d. 
Freeman, McC, d. 
Fronebarger, John, k. 
Gates, M. W. 
Gordon, J. P., w. 
Gordon. J. R.. c. 
Gurley, W. D., k. 
Hargett, A. J. 
Hall. Jas. 
Hayes, Blijan, c. 
Heauly. Wm. L.. d. 
Henderson, J. W., w. 
Henry, Berry. 
Henry, Terrell. 
Hipp, J. F., w. 
Hipp., L. A., w. 
Hood, H. C, d. 
Hovis, A. J., k. 
Hunsucker, J. W., w. 
Higgenson, John, w. 
Hunter, C. L., k. 

Johnston. A. N. 
King, G. W. 
King. Wm., w. 
Harris, N. J. 
Haney. E. H. 
Hunsucker, Wm., w. 
Kissiah. G. W.. w. 
Kissiah. T. A. 
Kissiah. W. M., w. 
Kistler, G. H., w. 
Kaiser, D. W., w. 
. Kaiser, T. P., c. 
Kaiser. Solomon, c. 
Kirkley. Thos., d. 
Lawring. David. 
Lawring, P. W., k. 
Looker, J. C. 
Lourie, S. J. 
McGhee, Isaac. 
McCoy. W. L., k. 
Manning. Jas. 
Manning, J. W., w. 
Montgomery, A. F. 
Moody, M. D. L. 
Mosters, F. A., d. 
Maxwell, D. S., w. 
McCall, J. C. 
McCord. D. L. 
McGinn. J. M., w. 
Montgomery, Jas. 
•froney, Caleb, w. 
Mullis, Colemaji. d. 
Mason, Robt. G. 
Nicholson. J. B., w. 
Orr, Joe, L.. w. 
Orr. J. G. A. 
Orr, C. M. 
Orr. J. L. v.. w. 
Orr. W. S. 
Gates, D. W. 
Pegram. M. P. 
Patterson. Eli, k. 
Patterson. J. H., w. 
Pay sour, Caleb, c. 
Phillips, J. A., k. 

civile WAR TROOPS. 


Rarefield, Frank, c. 
Reid, George, d. 
Robinson, jas. A., d. 
Robinson, T. C. 
Rudisill, Jacobs w. 
Rumage, L., d. 
Rupel, S. H., d. in p. 
Sharp, R. A., w. 
Sharp, T. A. 
Shaw, D. C, w. 
Shoe, Jacob, w. and c. 
Simpson, C. L., d. 
Simpson, Ira, P., c. 
Smith, Franklin. 
Spears, A . J. 
Spears, J. J., k. 
Stearns, Brown, k. 
Stearns, Dulin. 
Stearns, J. M., w. ana d. 
Stewart, A. A. 
-Stewart, P. J., c. 

Stinson, D. W., d. in p. 
Tagart, J. S., k. 
Tally, Mike, d. 
Taylor, Chas. 
Taylor, Jepe. 
Tally, John, k. 
Todd, R. J. 
Turner, S. R. 
Turner, Wm., d. 
Voorheis, Charles I. 
Walker, Robt. 
Whitley, G. M. D. 
Whitley, J. H. 
Williamson, G. W., w. 
Woodall, W. C, c. 
Wolf, B. B., k. 
Young, A. J., k. 
Yanaie, A. F., w. 

Total, 157; killed, 23; captured, 15; 
wounded, 18; died, 16. 



F. R. Alexander, Captain, k. 
J. F. McNeely, Captain. 
J. A. Wilson, Lieutenant. 
J. W. Shepard, Lieutenant. 
J. W. Spencer, Lieutenant. 
C. M. Payne, Lieutenant. 
J. A. Lowrance, Lieutenant. 
Alex. Livingston, Lieutenant 


J. L. Sloon. 
J. C. Faucet. 
J. T. Hotchkiss. 
W. B. Osborne. 
J. J. McNeeley, k. 
J. H. Williams. 

Amey, Henry. 
Alexander, A. H. 
Alexander, J., k. 
Alexander, J. Mc, d. 
Alexander, M. D., d. 

Alexander, R. A. 
Alexander, T. C. w. 
Allison, James. 
Auten, T. J., w. 
Barnett, A. G., w. 



Barrlnger, D. A., w. 
Bell, J. C. 
Benson, R. P.. d. 
Bingham, J. M., w. 
Black, Wm. M. 
Bradley, J. H. 
Brawley, R. W., w. 
Brown, B. D., w. 
Brown, J. M., w. 
Brown, W. L., w. 
Brown, J. C. 
Burkhead White, d. 
Beard, J. O.. k. 
Carrigan, H. A., d. 
Caldwell, M. B., w. 
Carrigan, Adam. 
Cashion, Frank, w. 
Cacthion, Jas., w. 
Cashion, I. W.. w. 
Cathcart, J, R.. k. 
Christenburg, Allison, i 
Chrlstenburg, A. H., d. 
Christenburg. Jas. 
Christenburg, R, P. 
Christenburg. Wm. 
Clark. Alex. 
Cork. Walter, c, and d. 
Craven. W. P. 
Ccurnellus. M. A., w. 
l>avls. H. W, k. 
DeArmond. J. A. 
Dewwse, Calvin T. 
Deireese. Q. ijk. k. 
Kdwarvlsv a W^ w. 
Klms^ X I. 
Knxerscm. M. H. 
F*iu>?t. J. C>* d. 
FVnitSv J. M.. k. 
O^iint^r. H^nry. 
H^Uit. RxKvh. 
HUU aasv R. U 
Huttt^r. H. S^ d. 
HuXv Joitrx. d. 
Mux. W^tSL M^ d. 
J;ic^^Mi. C. H, 

Jackson, W. JS^ d. 
Johnson, J. H. 
Jones, A. J. 
Jordan, Sansom, d. 
Kennerly, B. M. 
Kennerly, John, c. 
Ketchle, Wm. 
Keams, J. F., c. and a. 
Lowrance; R. W., d. 
Lowrance, L. N. 
Lowrance.. S. L., w. 
Moble, Joel. 
Moble, John. 
BlarUn, J. M.. d. 
Martin, John. 
McAuley. J. C. 
McConnell. R. A. 
MeOahey. Jas. A., k. 
Miller, W. C. 
Moore, Jas. C. 
Morgan, Zac, k. 
Mowery, Henry. 
Nance, J. A., d. 
Nelson, W., d. 
Osborne, N. B^ w. 
Ollphant. J. R. k. 
Reese, D. L. 
Shepard. Q. T. 
Shields, A. C. 
bloan. A. C^ d. 
Sloan. J. Mc. d. 
Sloan. W. B. 
Smith. W. T. d. 
Sossamon. J. P^ c. and 
Steams^ Henry M. 
Sloan. D. F. A^ w. 
Stokes. J. J. 
Stourt. Rich- L 
Strider. John, k. 
Templeton. J. R D. 
TempletiMi. J- M.. w, 
Templeton. R> D. 
Tye. Wm. A. 
Vance, w, H^ d- 
Wa:i:sw R. A^ d. 

civil. WAR TROOPS. 


Walls, Thos. w. and c. 
Worsham, Alfred, w. 
Worsham, B. A., d. 
Worsham, Richard, d. 
Worsham, H. J., w. 

Watts, R. F., k. 
Williams, J. H., w. 
Williams, Rufus. 

Total, 121; killed, 13; wounded, 26. 



S. B. Alexander, Captain. 
B. F. Wilson. Lieutenant. 
A. M. Rhyne, Lieutenant, d. 
Jos. H. Wilson, d. 


Thomas Norment. 

Wm. Hecks, w. and c. 

Wm. Price. 

Jas. Keenan, k. 

W. S. Bynum, c. 

J. H. Staten, d. 

S. W. Talton, w. 

Ed. Day, k. 

Jas. Scott, w. 

T. C. Dule. 

L. Adams. 
Anderson, W. H. H., w. 
Anderson, G. "W., d. 
Benfield, Dan., w. 
CuUet, Ezekiel. 
Coots, Jacob, d. 
Dulin. W. C, k. 
Dulin, W. L. 
Foster, J. H., d. 
Flowers, R. B. 
Gilbert, Harrison, 
Gilbert, Jas. 
Grub, Absolom, d. 
Gaston, J. A. 
Griffin, B. F., d. 
Hendrix, Grayson, w. 
Hendrix, L. J., c. 
Hendrix, Sanford, c. 
Harman, Paul, w. 
Heifer, P. B. 
Helms, Hosea, c. 
Helms, Enoch, c. 

Helms, Gilliam. 
Helms, D. B., c. 
Helms, Albert. 
Helms, John, w. 
Helms, Josiah, c. 
Helms, Kennel, c. 
Helms, Copeland. w. 
Helms, J. L. 
Helms, Joshua. 
Helms, Eli W. 
Johnson, Matthew, d. 
Milton, Francis, w. 
Milton, Alex. 
Mitchell, Allison. 
Makaler, Frank. 
Minor, H. J., c. 
Norment, Charles, d. 
Orrell, Sam'l. 
Paul, J. L., w. 
Phillips, J. B., d. 



Polk, — . iL 
Perry, Noah. 
Privette, Wesley. 
Randall, E. D. 
Rindal, L. L., c. 
SeyerSy — , k. 
Singleton, Henry. 
Scott, John W. 
Scott, Leader. 
Smith, Alex. 
Staner, P. C. 

Shoemaker, Lafayette 
Smith, Jonn. 
Stone, John« w. 
Sanring, J. Bf. 
Sharp, Isaac. 
Triplette, J. H. 
Walsh, G. B.. c 
Walsh, J. H. 
Whitley, John. 

Total, 82. 



Jas. T. Davis, Captain, k. 

Jas. P. Ardrey, k. 

John C. Grier, w. 

John W. Bamett, Lieutenant, k. 

R. H. Grier. Lieutenant, k. 

J. G. Potts, Lieutenant 

S. R. Neal, Lieutenant 

Jas. H. Elms, Lieutenant 

W. T. Bamett k. 

L. M. Neal, k. 


J. A. Elliott 

R. C. Bell. 

Wm. L. Manson. w. 

J. A. Ezzell. 

J. W. Wolf. 

Roht N. Alexander. 

Alexander, E. E. 
Alexander, R, W. 
Alexander, J. J., k. 
Alexander, T. B., d. 
Alexander, W. P., w. 
Allen, A, W. 
Ashley, Wm. 
Bamett, W. P. 
Bennett D. G., w. 
Brown, J. G. 
Brown, W. H. 
Cruthers, T. M., w. 
Crane, Joh S. 

Crenshaw, John, ^ 
Culp, John« w. 
DeArmond, J. B.. 
Dunn. Jas. YL, w. 
Elliott S. H., w. 
Farris, J. A., w. 
Fields, BL A. 
Flncher, J. E.. d. 
Fincher, O. 
Fleniken, L. B. 
French, Wm. 
Garrison, A. D. 
Gordon, A. EL 

civil, WAR Troops. 


Griffin, Egbert. 
Griffith, I. G. 
Griffith, J. W. 
Griffith, T. D. 
Grier, Lawrence, 
Hannon, J. J. 
Harkey, D. E. 
Harkey, J. J. 
Harkey, M. L. 
Harkey, Wash. 
Hartis, J. L. 
Hartis, J. S. 
Hanfield, Jas. W. 
Hennigen, J. E. 
Howard, J. M., w. 
Hudson, Wilson. 
Jamison, Emory. 
Johnson^ Dan. 
Johnson, J. A. 
Kenan, D. G. 
Kenier, J. R. 
Kerr, Jas. 
Kerr. Sam'l. 
Kirkpatrick, S. A. 
McAllister, H. B. 
McRaney, Sam'l. 
Miller, W. T. 
Moore, W. W. 
Morris, G. C. 
Morris, J. W. 
Neel, W. B. 
Neely, Wm. A. 
Newell, W. A. 
Osborne, J. H., w. 
Paxton, S. L. 
Phifer, E. M., k. 
Pferce, John, k. 
Pierce, L. M. 

Porter, Robt. A., w. 
Porter, S. L. 
Porter, Zenas. 
Pratner, A. R.. d. 
Prather, S. F. 
Previtt, Allen. 
Raterree, W. L. 
Rea, D. J., w. 
Reid, William, k. 
Richardson, J. H. 
Ross, W. A. 
Shaw, J. N. 
Smith, E. C. 
Smith, Wm. J. B. 
Spratt, A. P. 
Squires, M. D., w. 
Stanford, C. L. 
Stephenson, Wm. J., w. 
Stitt, Jas. M. 
Swann, J. B. 
Taylor, Ed. S., w. 
Taylor, J. A. R., w. 
Tevepaugh, Wm. 
Tidwell, W. P. A. 
Turner, F. M. 
Walker, E. M., w. 
Warwick, J. M., w. 
Watson, J. A., d. 
Watson, J. B. 
Watson, J. S. 
Weeks, J. L., w. 
Whitesides, Wm., w. 
Wingate, J. P.. w. 
Wingate, Wm. C. 
Wolf, J. W. 

Total, 116; killed, 5; wounaed, 23. 
died, 5. 



J. H. White, Captain, k. 
S. E. Belk, Captain, k. 
J. M. Springs, Lieutenant. 



W. M. Matthews, Lieutenant. 
M. E. Alexander, Lieutenant. 


R. J. Patterson, w. 

S. M. Blair. 

R. A. Davis. 

A. N. Gray. 

W. R. Baily. 

R. H. Todd, k. 

W. H. Alexander, k. 
Alexander, J. W.« d. 
Alexander, Benj. P., d. 
Alexander, Benj. C. 
Anderson, Wm., d. 
Atchison, Wm., c. and w. 
Armstrong, Leroy, c. 
Bamett, R. S. 
Bamett, W. A.« k. 
Bamett, E. L. S. 
Berryhill, W. A., c. 
Berryhill, Andrew, w. 
Berryhill, Alex. 
Barnes, S. S. D., d. 
Bruce, G. W. 
Burwell, J. B. 
Benton, Sam'l. w. 
Baker, G. F., w. 
Cochran, J. M. 
Cochran, Wm. R. 
Cochran, R. C. 
Cotchcoat, J. H., w. 
Capps, John. d. 
Caton, Eilijah, w. and c. 
Caton, SylY., c. and d. 
Clark, W. H. 
Clark, W. C. 
Clark, A. W. 
Collins, John, k. 
Campbell, J. P. 
Davis, W. A., d. 
Demon, Jacob. 
Donnell, W. T.. w. and c 
Engenbum, J. 
E«agle, John, w. 
Eagle, W. H. 

Epps, W. D., k. 
Engel, Jonas. 
Frazier, J. L. 
Fincher, Asa. 
Farrices, Z. W. 
Frazier, J. C. R. 
Grier, J. G., w. 
Giles, M. O. 
Giles, S. H. 
Howie, J. M. 
Howie, Saml M., w. 
Jtiowie, F. M., w. 
Hall, H. L., w. 
Hood, R. L., c. 
Harry, W. B.. w. 
Hoover, F. M. 
Katz, Aaron. 
King, P. A., k. 
Kirkpatrick, T. A. 
Knox. J. S. 
Leon, Lewis. 
Love, D. L. 
Marks, S. S., c. 
Marks, J. G., w. 
Marks, T. E., k. 
Marks, W. S. 
McGinn, Thos. 
McElroy, Jas. W., k. 
Mitchell, C. J. 
McKinney, Wm. 
McKinney, T. A., c. 
Merritt, Wm. N., k. 
McCrary, Jordan. 
Morrison, J. M. 
McCombs, A. H., w. and e. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Maxwell, P. P., w. 
McCrum, H. A., k. 
Norment, A. A., k. 
Otters, Gooney, c. and .d. 
Owens, J. Henry, k. 
Oates, Jas. 
Potts, Jas. H. 
Patterson, S. L. 
Parks, iviiah« c. 
Reid, H. K. 
Reid, J. F., k. 
Robinson, Thomp. 
Russell, H. T.. c. 
Rodden, N. B.. w. 
Rodden, W. R., k. 
Robinson, J. P. 
Smith, Lemuel. 
Sweat, J. M. 
Sample, H. M., c. 
Sample, David. 
Sample, J. W. 
Sample, J. M., c. 
Springs, R. A. 
bcone, W. D., w. and c. 
Sullivan, vST. L. 

Stewart, W. S., d. 
Taylor, J. W., w. 
Todd, S. B. 
Thomas, Henry. 
Trotter, A. G. 
X rotter, Thos., d. 
Vickers, B. N. 
Worthern, Henry, d. 
Wilkenson, Neil, k. 
Wolfe, C. H. 
Winders, P. S., c. 
Wilson, L. R., c. 
Wilson, J. H., k. 
Wilson, S. W., w. and c. 
Wilson, J. M. 
Wilkinson, R. L. 
Williams, Hugh. 
Williams, J. A. 
Williams, A. L. 
Williamson, A. L., c. 
Williamson, J. M., c. 
White, J. T. 

Total, 110; killed, 16; wounded, 21; 
died, 12; captured, 20. 



J. Y. Bryce, Captain, w. 
Robt. Gadd, Lieutenant. 
B. H. Sanders, Lieutenant. 
Wm. Bryce, Lieutenant. 


J. J. Misenheimer. 

J. B. Savis. 

J. F. Davidson. 

G. F. Vickers, k.' 

— . — . Vickers, k. 

W. H. A. Kluts. 

M. L. Furr. 

Noah Shore. 

R. Kluts. 
Blackwelder, D. C. Biggers. Robt. 

Biggers, William. Bost, Moses. 

Biggers, Houston, d. Bost, S. C. 



Boat, J. K. P. 
Beattie, J. O. 
BarDon, George. 
Barber, Josiah. 
Benson, H. A. 
Broadstreet, J. R., c. 
Browning, J. M., d. 
Clay, J. M.. c. 
Cline, H. B. 
CUne, W. D.. c. 
Carriker, S. C. 
Cox, J. D. 
Cruse, Peter. 
Carson, J. L. 
Craig, Alex., c. 
Davis, W. E. 
Doolan, E., k. 
Eaudy, Paul. 
Furr, Mat 
Furr. D. C. 
Furr, Allen. 
Furr, A. W., d. 
Fisher, C. A. 
File, J. F. 
Falls, W. A. 
Faggart, D. C. 
Foard, E. j!il. 
Floyd, Wm. 
Fink. Peter, k. 
Griffin, Wesley. 
Gatlin, G. W. 
Grover, Austin. 
Hagler, Jacob. 
Hagler, Allen. 
Hagler, Nelson. 
Hagler, J. A. 
Hoffman, J. L. 
Hoffman, J. L. 
Hoffman, J. M. 
Hartman, H. M. 
Howell, W. E. 
Hunsacker, N. J. 
Johnson, J. M.« c 
Johnson, G. W. 
Johnson, Jacob. 

Riser, G. A. 
Riser, N. D. 
Kimmons, R. M. 
Lay, J. G. 
Linker, Jas. 
Linker, W. R. 
Linker, Aaron. 
Linker, Moses. 
Lefter, W. H. 
Lay, W. J. 
Lay, A. L. 
Lay. J. W. 
Ledford, C. M. 
McCoy, J. R. 
McDaniel. E. B., k. 
McDaniel, E. A., d. 
McEntire, M. L., c. 
Misenheimer, J. H. 
Moreton, W. R., d. 
Moore, Dr. T. J. 
Osborne, J. F. 
Osborne, Robt., d. 
Plyler, F. S. 
Pender, J. H. 
Perkins, A. 
Pace, Young. 
Reaves, F. A. 
Rice, Moses. 
Richards, Wm. 
Ray, A. D.. c. 
Rhyne. C. M. 
Rinehart, W. D., c. 
Rinehart, Thos. 
Starnes, John, d. 
Starnes. E. W. 
Sossaman, D. G. 
Sossaman, W. H. 
Smith, G. F. 
Smith, G. L. 
Smith, J. B. 
Stranter, Wm. 
Stranter, John. 
Stranter, T. H. 
Stowe. L. P. 
Smith, Frank, k. 



Smith, L. A. 
Thomas, C. W. 
Turner, W. D. 
Troutman, Geo. 
Wilson, J. M. 
Wallace, J. M. 

Wilson, Wm. 
Wallace, J. R. 
Williamson, J. M. 
Williamson, J. B., w. 

Total 116; died 6; killed 6; wounded 
3; captured 4. 



Robert P. Waring. 
Drury Ringstaff, First Lieutenant. 
William E. Still, Second Lieutenant. 
Julius Alexander, Second Lieutenant. 
Robt. T. Burwell, Second Lieutenant. 


Drury Lacy, First Sergeant. 
Robt. B. Corbie, Second Sergeant. 
S. R. Johnston, Third Sergeant. 
J. Harris Hunter, Fourth Sergeant. 
R. T. Burwell, Fifth Sergeant. 
Henry S. Presson, First Corporal. 
Smiley W. Hunter, Second Corporal. 
Robt. C. McGinness, Third Corporal. 
Hiram Secrest, Fourth Corporal, k. 

Alexander, John M. 
Aycock, W. M., k. 
Broom, Samron. 
Broom, Solomon. 
Broom, S. A. 
Broom, N. W. 
Broom, Calvin, k. 
Broom, Wilson. 
Broom, A. T. 
Barnes, Bryant. 
Blackwelder, D. M. 
Boyd, Hugh. 
Burwell, W. R. 
Cociiran, W. L., k. 
Craft, A. J. 
Allen, Dees Iv. 
Fincher, Levi J., w. 
Fowler, Moses F. 
Fowler, Geo. W., k. 
Griffith, J. Henry, k. 
Griffith, J. L. 

Grier, Paul B., k. 
Griffith, Marley. 
Griffith, Farrington. 
Harrington, Ed. P. 
Helms, Asa. 
Helms, Josiah, k. 
Helms, Noah. 
Helms, Elbert, k. 
Helms, W. M. 
Helms, Alex. L. 
Helms, Noah J. 
Howell, W. J., k. 
Hunter, Mad., k. 
Hargrave, Robt. W. 
Knight, W. M. 
Singleton Lacy D. 
Little, Bryant. 
Moore, Pleasant. 
McGwirt, David. 
McGwlrt, H. A. 
Mullis, Simon. 



Mannis, T. M. 
Mannis, A. W. 
Price, Jocdah G. 
Phillips, John. 
Presley, John M. 
Presley, Caswell. 
Parsons, Larkins. 
Paxton, William W. 
Robinson, M. M. 
Robinson, M. B. 
' Rea, W. F. 
Reams, John W., k. 
Robinson, Samuel J. 
Stearns, Johnston. 
Steams, Daniel, k. 
Steams, Thos. H. 
Steams, John R.« k. 
Stack, Albert. 
Steele, Albert, k. 

Steele, Thos. 
Stegall, Moses. 
Stesall, Ambrose. 
Stancel, James. 
Stout, J. S. 
Swift, Geo. W. 
Simpson, H. Mc. 
Sikes. Geo. G. 
SherHll. William E. 
Thomburg. John L. 
Womack. John. 
Wilson, W. A. 
Wilson, J. A. 
Wilson, G. J. 

Total, 89; reported killed, 20; 
wounded, 1; died, 7; 19 only returned 
home; 42 missing. 



John R. Erwin, Captain. 
J. McWhite, First Lieutenant. 
C. S. Gibson, Second Lieutenant. 
W. J. Wiley, Third lieutenant, 
S. A. Grier, First Sergeant. 
J. R. Kirkpatrick, Second Sergeant. 
R. A. Davidson, Third Sergeant. 
P. W. Lintz, Fourth Sergeant. 
J. H. Henderson, First Corporal. 
J. M. Beaver, Second Corporal. 
H. C. Bird, Third Corporal. 
C. B. Palmer, Fourth Corporal. 

Armstrong, Larkin. 
Armstrong, Mathew. 
Alexander, H. L. 
Abernathey, W. D. 
Andrews, G. W. 
Asbury, Eugene. 
Adams, James. 
Brown, J. C. 
Blackwelder, James. 
Blackwood, Eli. 
Burroughs, John. 
Bmm, C. F. 

Alexander, W. N. 
Alexander, J. W. 
Alexander, J. S. 
Bowden, Louis. 
Bigham, Green. 
Cochran, J. C. 
Cochran, R. E. 
Caldwell, D. A. 
Caldwell, R. B. 
Caldwell, J. N. 
Caldwell, H. M. 
Cahill, John. 

civil, WAR TROOPS. 


Ca/they, John. 
Coleman, T. P. 
Davidson, R. A. 
Davis, J. T. A. 
Downs, J. T. 
Eudy, John. 
Erwin, W. R. 
Furguson, F. A. 
Flenigan, R. G. 
Ferrell, J. F. M. 
Fisher, J. V. 
Fisher, Alfred. 
Fisher, Francis. 
Fisher, E. L. 
Faggot, Dan. 
Gibson, D. M. 
Griffith, C. F. 
Grier, J. H. 
Grier, Sam. 
Harkey, W. F. 
Howie, W. H. 
Halobough, J. M. 
Hunter, A. B. 
Hoover, T. J. 
Hannon, D. A. 
Harris, J. S. 
Hinson, M. 
Hutchison, C. N. 
Hartsell, Wm. 
Jamison, J. L. 
Jennings, J. H. 
Kirkpatrick, W. L. 
Kirkpatrick, J. M. 
Kerr, R. D. 
Kustler, M. E. 
Love, D. L. 
Love. J. M 
Lentz, Aaron. 
Lindsay, Thos. 
Leeper, Jas. 
Ludwick, S. 
Ludwick, Wm. 
Montgomery, R. C. 
McCall, J. A. 
McElhany, E. A. 

McElhany, S. L. 

McDonald, J. R. 
McDonald, Worth. 
Millen, R. A. 
McKenzie, Wm. 
Means. P. B. 
Moore, J. M. 
Miller, S. 
Minus, J. S. 
Nance, W. T. 
Nelson, J. M. 
Norwood, R. F. 
Neagle, J. F. 
Prather, W. S. 
Quiry, Walter. 
Reed. W. H. 
Russell, P. J. 
Roper, P. H. 
Regler, J. R. 
Rea, D. B. 
Rea, Samuel. 
Smith, D. W. 
Smith, A. 
Smith, R. T. 
Smith, J. B. 
Smith, John. 
Smith, Wm. 
Sloan, W. S. 
Shuman, W. H. 
Sharp, J. R. 
Survis, T. O. 
Terris, C. E. 
Tiser, W. H. G. 
Taylor, D. B. 
Tate, T. A. 
Tate, F. A. 
Torrence, C. L. 
Wilson, Wm. 
Wilson, J. C. 
White. R. S. 
Weaver, J. A. 
Wright, J. C. 
Wryfleld, Wm. 
Wallace, I. N. 
Younts, J. A. 
Young, J. A. 

Total, 127. 

j8o history of MECKLENBURG COUNTY. 



Roster of the Troops in the company Organized in Charlotte in 
April of 1847.*— Oreen W. Caldwell was Captain and He and the 
Lieutenants Were Honored by beats in the General Assembly 
After the End of the War.— The Total Number of the Soldiers 
was Seventy-nine, and Eleven of Them Died in the Service. 

James Knox Polk, a native of Mecklenburg county, was 
inaugurated President of the United States March 4, 1845, 
and in his inaugural address, he declared that he should de- 
fend the contentions of the United States with regard to the 
boundary line between Texas and Mexico. December 29th 
following, Texas, having adopted the proposition submit- 
ted, was formally recognized as a State of the Union. 

Mexico claimed that the proper boundary was the Neuces 
river, while Texas claimed that it was the Rio Grande. In 
March, 1846, General Taylor, acting under orders of the 
President, advanced into the disputed territory, and the 
Mexican general, Ampudia, declared that Mexico accepted 
the advance as a declaration of war. April 26th, the first 
blood of the war was shed, a party of sixty-three Americans 
being all killed or captured by a Mexican detachment. Con- 
gress then declared war and the armies of the United States 
pushed forward into Mexico and soon demonstrated their 
great superiority as fighters. Vera Cruz was surrendered 
in April, 1847, ^^^ the capital city was captured Septem- 
ber 13. The treaty of peace was signed February 2, 1848. 

In April, 1847, Green W. Caldwell resigned his position 
as director of the United States Mint in Charlotte, to organ- 
ize a company of dragoons for the war with Mexico. The 
company left Charlotte April 13, and went to Charleston, 
and from there to Vera Cruz, where they were enrolled as 

♦From the Supplement to the "Roster of North Carolina Troops, 
in the War With Mexico," published by the State in 1887. 


ME:CKI^KNBURG's part in the MEXICAN WAR. l8l 

Troop A, of the Third Regiment of the United States Dra- 
goons, of which the Colonel was E. G. W. Butler. This 
regiment engaged in a number of battles, in all of which the 
Mecklenburg troops participated. Captain Caldwell's com- 
pany was mustered out of service at Jefferson Barracks, Mis- 
souri, July 31, 1848, and the soldiers, except the eleven who 
had died and, two others who were missing, returned home 
and many of them were for many years numbered among 
the prominent and useful citizens. 

In the election held in 1849 for members of the General 
Assembly, which met in the following year, Captain Cald- 
well was elected to the State Senate, and Lieutenants J. K. 
Harrison and E. C. Davidson were elected Representatives. 



Green W. CaldweU, Captain. 

Edward C. Davidson, First Lieutenant. 

John K. Harrison, Second Lieutenant. 

Alfred A. Norment, Second Lieutenant 

Samuel E. Belk, First Sergeant. 

James Brian, Sergeant. 

Thomas D. Massey, Sergeant. 

John G. Query, Sergeant. 

John Harkey, Corporal. 

Charles J. Titlemary, Corporal. 

James T. Blair, Corporal. 

Matthias W. Cole, Corporal. 

John R. Glover, Corporal. 

Cyrus Q. Lemons, Bugler. 

James T. Warren, Blacksmith. 

♦From the Supplement to the "Roster of North Carolina Troops, 
in the War with Mexico," published by the State in 1887. 

1 82 


Alexap'lor. CJ;arl#»8 G. 
Alexander Kvaa. 
Alexander, Samuel J.*^ 
Alexander, Thomas. 
Beaty. William L. 
Boyd, liatthew B. 
Bridges, Nicholas R. 
Caldwell, LaFayette. 
Cody, John. 
CuUer, William. 
Davidson, William L. 
Dougherty, Charles R. 
Flenniken, Robert G. 
Forbes, Archibald. 
Fullenwider, John F. 
Glass, James R.^^ 
Gray, Ransom S. 
Griffith, Thomas D. 
Houston, William A. 
Keziah, William A.^^ 
Lemons, D 
Lemons, Archibald. 
Lemons, Jackson C. 
Mason, Robert G. 
Matthews, Hugh A. 
McCall, James.^^ 
McCall, John A. 
McCall, William. 
McCall, William J. 
McKee, Alex. F. 
McKee, Elias R. 
Mulwee, John T. 
Normant, Thomas T. 

Parks^ Henry. 
Prather, John J. 
Paxton, William. 
Phifer, John. 
Porter, Hugh G. 
Rea, William F. 
Reed, James B.^^ 
Richardson, John K. 
Richardson, Mason. 
Robinson, Daniel E. 
Robinson, James M.** 
Sanders, Jesse. 
Sherrill. Hartford. 
Sherrell, Robert K. 
Sherrell, William. 
Sherrill, Absolom L.^ 
Sitzer, James. 
Smith, Burton. 
Smithy, Willis W. 
Stanford, David W. 
Stilwell, Henry. 
Stewart, Allen.*^ 
Stewart, Milus R.^^ 
Teague, John. 
Tye, William A. 
Vipon, Nicholas. 
Waitt, William E. R. 
Wentz, Valentine.** 
Williamson, James D. 
Williamson, John M. 
Williamson, Thomas J. 
Wilson. George W.** 

•♦Died in Mexico. 



Account of the Service Rendered by Mecklenburg I'roops.— Rosters 
of the Three White Companies and the Colored Company.* — 
Charlotte Soldiers Among the First Americans to Land in 

February 15, 1898, the destruction of the United States 
battleship Maine, in Havana harbor, brought the Spanish- 
American hostile feeling to an acute stage. Congress de- 
clared war on Spain April 19, and on May 11, Ensign 
Worth Bagley, of North Carolina, was killed by the explo^ 
sion of a Spanish shell while on the torpedo boat Winslow, 
at Cardenas. He was the first officer to die in the war. 

President McKinley's call for volunteers April 23, met 
with a prompt response in North Carolina. The First Reg- 
iment of the State was mustered into the service of the Na- 
tion at Camp Bryan Grimes, at Raleigh, May 2. In this 
regiment were the two white companies which went from 
Charlotte. The troops left Raleigh May 22, and encamped 
near Jacksonville until October 24, when they went to Sa- 
vannah and remained there until December 7. At that time, 
the regiment was ordered to Havana, arriving December 
II, and being the first to land in the Cuban capital.* It 
was kept in Cuba until March 18, 1899, and then returned 
to Savannah and was mustered out April 22. George F. 
Rutzler, of Charlotte, was a major of the regiment, and H. 
M. Wilder was surgeon with rank of major. R. E. David- 
son, now of Charlotte, was colonel of the First Florida Reg- 

•Roster of the North Carolina Volunteers in the Spanish- American 
War, printed by the State, 1900. 
♦Official Reports. 




Thomas R. Robertson, Captain. 

Thomas L. Powell, First Lieutenant 

Herbert J. Hirshinger, Second Lieutenant 

Albert G. Prempert First Sergeant 

James M. Edwards, Q. M. Sergeant 

Thomas Garribaldi, Q. M. Sergeant. 

Egbert Lyerly, Seargeant 

Johnson Graham, Sergeant 

Paul Schultz, Sergeant 

Ripley P. Smith, Sergeant. 

Gordon H. Cilley, Hickory, Corporal. 

William B. Flake, Corporal. 

Robert B. Knox, Corporal. 

George M. Maxwell, Corporal. 

Charles M. McCorkle, Newton, Corporal. 

Ck>leman O Moser, Corporal. 

Francis D. McLeon, Corporal. 

Luther M. Osborne, Corporal. 

Charles M. Setzer, Corporal. 

James J. Stuart, Corporal. 

Patrick H. Williams, Corporal. 

Ulyses B. Williams, Corporal. 

John G. Wilfong, Corporal. 

William K. Allen, Artificer. 
John J. Ozment, Artificer. 

William R. Graham, Wagoner. 

Claude Miller, Wagoner. 

John F. Butt, Wagoner. 

James H. McLeon, Cook. 
Allen, Otto A., Gastonia. 
Armstrong, W. L., Belmont. 
Auten. Edward M. 
Boiles, E. L., Pineville. 
Bennett, D. E., King's Mountain. 
Brown, W. A., Davidson.** 
Brown, Karl. 

Burge, D. L., Rutherfordton. 
Butler, N. A. Clinton. 
Campbell, J. H., Newton. 
Campbell, M. O, Newton. 
Cannon, Dink, Marion. 

Colbert, D. L., Augusta, Ga. 
Crump, S. R., Mint Hill. 
Crump, T. C, Mint Hill. 
Delnaux, Alfred. 
DeMarcus, Lucian, Davidson. 
Elam, Ralph, Spartanburg. 
Fink, L. A., Pioneer Mills. 
Francis, W. A., Hennetta. 
Frederick, W. T., Sardis. 
Fry, Burt A. 
Garibaldi, John N. 
Garrison, John, Morganton. 

• *A11 enlisted from Charlotte except as otherwise stated, mustered 
ouit April 22, 1899, at Savannah. 

**Died in Davidson on furlough, October 19, 1898. 




Ginn, G. R., Atlanta. 

Glenn, R. W., Cluster. 

Goforth, John F., Bethel, S. C. 

Goforth, J. L., King's Mountain. 

Gribble, Marcus H. 

Grier, D. D., Matthews. 

Grier, V. G., Matthews. 

Head, R. L., Statesvllle. 

Hennessee, S. A., North Cove. 

Henning, F. A., Chicago, 111. 

Herndon, W. P., King's Mountain. 

Hill, John D. 

Hodges, Oliver L. 

Hoke, W. P., King's Mountain. 

Hord, R. M., Waco. 

Parker, D. W., Spartanburg. 
Pegram, William E. 
Pitts, J. B., (joncord. 
Proctor, W. A., Lincolnton. 
Reid, J. C, Sago. 
Renn, E. W., West Durham. 
Rhodes, J. E., King's Mountain. 
Richard, C. J., Pensacola, Fla. 
Roper, D. C, Spartanburg. 
Roper, R., Spartanburg. 
Romley, S. F., Winston. 
Sells, James. 
Sherrill, C. M., Newton. 
Sikes, Daniel S. 
Smith, O. B., Callahan. 

Huffsteller, W. T., King's Mountain. Steadman, W. W., Ramasbur 

Ivey, B. F., Rock Hill, S. C. 

Jimison, M. E., Rocky Pass.*** 

Johnson, Wallace D. 

Kale, A. E., Hickory. 

Keener, H. O., Hickory. 

L#ewis, J. W., Marion. 

Lewis, J. A., Marion. 

Linton, S. E. 

Lyon, J. S., Hendersonville. 

Navney, R. J., King's Mountain. 

Mize, R. L., Granite Falls. 

Montgomery, Walter W. 

Murphy, Harry, Boston, Mass. 

McKay, Joseph V. 

Odell, M., Bessemer City. 

Trimble, J. M., Monroe. 
Wavra, Gus. E. 
Weir, J. F., King's Mountain. 
White, L. W.. Augusta, Ga. 
Williams, B., Marion. 
Williams, J. W., Clover, S. C 
Williams, W. H., Jr., Newton. 
Wilson, W. M., Rhems, S. C. 
Yoder, A. T., Hickory. 
Yount, A. O.^ Newton. 
Yount, L. C, Hickory. 
Yount, T. E., Newton. 
Yount, W. H., Newton. 

Total, 114. 


William A. Erwin, Captain. 

Hubert S. Chadwick, Captain.** 

Harry Page, First Lieutenant. (Promoted.) 

John R. Van Ness, First Lieutenant.*** 

Samuel Bell, Second Lieutenant. (Promoted.) 

William H. Schroeder, Jr., First Sergeant. (Promoted.) 

*A11 enlisted from Charlotte, except as otherwise stated. Mustered 
out April 27, 1899, at Savannah. 
**Resigned December 1, 1898. 
***Resigned October 30, 1898. 



HertiertN. Buka. 

EK W. Bouer. 

Oaear D. KiA«, 

Liord C. Torremcc; 

W. C Aduuv PemB^lTaaia. OorpocmL (Diei.| 

J. H. DiekaoB, Spartan b-arg; OorpormL 

E. E. Williams^ Steele Creek. OorpocmL 

C G. Garter. Albemarie, CorporaL 

W. A. B(eal. Sardis. CorporaL 

8. 8. Feeram, Sooth Point, CorporaL 

Frederick R. Catea. CorporaL 

Duncan F. Daria. Cumberland, Corp<»aL 

Charles E. Mocteiler. CorporaL 

E. P. Carpenter, Gaatonia. CorporaL 

O. P. Bright, GreenTille, CorporaL 

Arthnr B. Ferrift, CorporaL 

Jirtm W. Floyd, CorporaL 

W. W. Phillips, Redclay. Ga^ Artificer. 

R. C. HnmmeL Greensboro, Cook. 

John Hardy, Wagoner. 

William H. Ayers, Wagoner. 

George F. Smith, Tryon, Musician. 

William H. Asbnry, Mnacian. 

Alexander, William B. 
Bailey, W. B., Marion. 
Barkley, Enen L. 
Beon, W. F., AsheyiUe. 
Bridges, Joseph R. 
Cooper, F. W., DysartTille. 
Gates, Lucky R. 
Ganble, C. M., Asheville. 
Gh^man, A. F., Enola. 
Gheary, J. J., Concord. 
Gulp, E., Fort Mills, 8. C. 
Collins, W. M., Greensboro. 
Gozby, W. L., Greenville, 8. C. 
Cooper, H. L., Dysartville. 
Crone, V. H., Partieth. 
Davis, W. M., Fayetteville. 
Davis, Edgar 8. 
Daniel, W. to., Greensboro. 
Dunn, Rufus G. 
Duncan, R. M.« Marion. 

Delnaux, Florian. 
Finger, R. T.. Crouse. 
FYeeman, John E. 
FYeeman, Neal B. 
Greely, C. E., New London. 
Gore. V. L, Philadelphia. 
Gregory, R. E. L.. Bamardsville. 
Glass, J. D., DysartviUe. 
Graham, John M. 
Grose, Ralph. 
Gray, Edward S. 
Hargett, F., Sharon. 
Hillis, W. H., Augusta, Ga. 
HoUister, G. H.. Wilmington. 
Hickey, R. H., Newport, 'i*«uu 
Hendley, J. M., Marion. 
Hoke, G. W., Ckdrmont. 
Hunt, H. H., Spartanburg. 
Harrett. O. H., Palm. (Died.> 
Jones, Walter G. 


Jones, William H. Pegram, Walter P. 

Kerr, E. D., Sharon. Ramsey, W. A., Durham. 

Kissiah, Thomas. Rogers, R. B., Leicester. 

Lander, William T. Revelle, J. H.. Salisbury. 
Langford, O. S., Augusta, Ga. Sadler, Armond D. (Promoted.) 

Lindsay, R. T., Pittsburg, Pa. Stutts, Louis B. 

Linear, N., Fort Mills, S. C. Scott, Claudius. 

Lequex, P. S., Greensboro. Sandifer, E. L., Sandifer. 
McDonnell, S. K., Jr., Rock Hill, S. C.Shaw, G. R., Lamont. 

McGowan, John W. Timmons, Harry. 

Moore, W. H.. Lowsville. Woodside, Rufus W. 

Mace, C, Enola. Thomas, G. W., Gaston. 

Murphy, Micjiel. Williamson, C, Matthews. 

Murphy, Dennis. Wells, J. M., Duplin county. 

Neese, John W. Wall, J. M., Marion. 

Gates, W. D. S. Withers, M. P., Gastonia. 

Osborne, John M. Walker, Chanes C. 

Phillips, A. J., Concord. Yandle, L. S., Randan. 

Poplin, W. S., Stanley county. 

Porter, W. H., Matthews. Total, 109. 
Parrott, J. W., Richmond, Va. 


This regiment was mustered into the service May 26, 
1898. After six weeks of camp drill at Raleigh, the com- 
panies of the regiment were separated. Campanies D and 
G, under command of Major Dixon, were stationed at I^and^s 
End, S. C. In October, the regiment was consolidated at 
Raleigh, and the troops were given a thirty days' furlough. 
Before the time expired an ordei was issued that the mem- 
bers of the companies should assemble at the most conven- 
ient points and be there mustered out. Accordingly, Com- 
pany G disbanded in Charlotte, November 3, 1898. Rev. 
A. Osborne, of Charlotte, was chaplain of this regiment, and 
E. M. Brevard was assistant surgeon, with rank as captain. 

Robert L#ee Durham, Gastonia, Captain. 
Plato T. Durham, Gastonia, First Lieutenant. 

♦All enlisted from Charlotte except as otherwise stated. This 
was known as the Gastonia Company. 


Ernest N. Farrior, Second Lieutenant 
Walter V. Brem, Jr., First Sergeant 
A. A. Wilson, M.t Holly. Q. M. Sergeant 
C. M. Isenhour. Gastonia, Sergeant 

5. S. Shuford, Gastonia, Sergeant 

6. G. Sandifer. Sandifer, Sergeant 
F. H. Wilson, Gastonia, Sergeant 
R. L. Jenkins, Gastonia, Corporal. 
H. M. Miller, Athens, Ga., Corporal. 
John S. Woodard, Corporal. 

R. P. Elmore, Gastonia, Corporal. 

Thomas H. Trotter, Corporal. 

A. Lewis, Gastonia, Corporal. 

W. M. Robinson, Lincolnton, Corporal. 

W. L. Williams, Glenbumie, Corporal. 

William F. Duke, Corporal. 

H. Otter, New York, Corporal. 

J. S. Vincent, Midlothian, Va., Corporal. 

J. W. Horton, Washburn, Corporal. 

W. A. Ray, McAdensville, Corporal. 

Albert S. Savin, Musician. 

T. B. Bryant, Gaffney, S. C, Musician. 

Joe. F. Harris, Artificer. 

William C. Hargett, Wagoner. 

Alexander, A. W., Huntersville. Donaldson, William D. 

Ball, J. A., Washington, N. C. Doughty, Lester D. 

Beaty, G. W., Gastonia. Douglass, James F. 

Belk, E. A.. Waxhaw. Draughton, D. D., Mt. Island 

Bell, W. T., Statesville. Elms» John D. 

Berrier, S. T., Gaffney, S. C. Falls* W. T., King's Mountain. 

Biggers, R. H., Rock Hill. Finger, N. F.. Salisbury. 

Black, R. L., McAdensville. Foil, T. A.. Concord. 

Bulwinkle, F. C, Dallas. Foard, C, Statesville. 

Bryon, L. J., Wilmington. Ford, J. E. C, McAdensville. 

Campbell, Z. C, Spartanburg. Forrest, A., Concord. 

Clark, J. T., Griffin, v^a. Gattis, J. A., Gastonia. 

Candor, F. J., Stouts. Green, E., Swain. 

Costner, J. S., Gastonia. Grice, J. M., Gastonia. 

Craig, E., Chitmar, Ga. Gulledge, H. M., Morven. 

Craig, W. B., Gastonia. Halsell, H., Newton. 

Crook, W. W., Asheville. Hampton, G. W., Sylva. 
Cummings, D., Wilmington. Harmon, G. W., King's Mountain. 

Cummings, W. M., Wilmington. Haymie, C, Asheville. 

Davis, A. J., Spray. Haywood, J. M., Stouts. 

Davis, W. A., Asheville. Heath, J. M., Gastonia. 



Hernden, J. J., Crocker. 
Hernden, M. P., Grover. 
Hoffman, R. Y., Lowell. 
Humphreys, Charles. 
Jackson, Clemens E. 
Jacobson, A. L., New York. 
Jenkins, G. A., Gastonla. 
Jones, Ben. F. 
Kennedy, Lawrence J.- 
Keller, Henry A. 
Laubrey, A. C, Baltimore. 
Lay, J. M., Gastonla. 
Lewis, Fred E. 
Linder, R. W., Gastonla. 
Lindsey, H. L., Asheville. 
Llpkind, Dianiel. 
Massagee, C. A., Asheville. 
McClellan, Daniel C. 
McGowan, James E. 
Moore, Joseph D. 
Nort, H. W., Atlanta, Ga. 
O'Byrne, M., Centralia, Pa. 
Pace, Albert P. 
Parrish, Walter L. 

Patten, James, Asheville. 

Patten, James P., Asheville. 

Pearoe, Henry L. 

Pryor, J. F., Knpxville. 

Reynolds, J. O., Roberdell. 
Rhodes, J. C, King's Mountain. 
Richardson, J. M., Pacolet, S. C. 

Richman, J. B., Tryon. 

Russell, William E. 

Sample, M. M., Begonia. 

Savin, Charles E. 

Sharar, Wilson A. 

Sims, Gipson R. 

Smith, B. M., Hopewell. 
Smith, J. N., King's Mountain. 

Steele, J. P. H., Lowell. 

Thomas, J. B., Sandifer. 

Ward, E. W., Llncolnton. 

Watkins, T., Bryson City. 

Wafford, C. H., Matthews. 

Wood, J., Asheville. 

Total, 113. 


This regiment of colored troops, of which James H. 
Young, of Raleigh, was colonel, came into the service of the 
United States July 19, 1898. Companies A, B and C, com- 
posing a battalion, were mustered in at Fort Macon, N. C, 
May 12. Company A, of Charlotte, belonged to the State 
Guard, but the other companies were composed of new 
recruits. The regiment was moved to Knoxville, Tenn., 
September 14, and from there to Macon, Ga., November 21, 
It remained in Macon until it was mustered out in February, 
1899. This body of troops was reviewed by Secretary of 
War Alger, September 20, and by President McKinley, 

♦Died in Raleigh Hospital October 21, 1898. 
♦All enlisted from Charlotte except as otherwise stated. Company 
mustered out February 2, 1899, at Macon, Ga. 


December 21, and was complimented by both the Secretary 
and the President. C. S. L. A. Taylor, of Charlotte, was 
lieutenant colonel; and M. T. Pope was assistant surgeon, 
with rank as first lieutenant. 

WlUiam. P. Stitt, Captain. 

James C. Graham, First Lieutenant. 

H. H. Taylor, Warrenton, Second Lieutenant 

Samuel A. Harris^ First Sergeant.** 

Leander W. Hayes, First Sergeant 

Ellis H. Johnson, Q. M. Sergeant 

Frank French, Sergeant 

Zachariah Alexander, Sergeant 

James Walters, Sergeant 

Cobb Bums, Sergeant 

Henry R. Johnson, Corporal. 

Clarence L. Gordon, Corporal. 

Isaac W. Parks, Corporal. 

Fred Lander, Corporal. 

Edward W. Moss, Corporal. 

Robert Abemathy, Corporal. 

Arbell V. Henderson, Corporal. 

William Lillington, Corporal. 

Charles J. Bartlow, Corporal. 

John Caldwell, Corporal. 

John Gray, Corporal. 

Thomas B. Smith, Corporal. 

Thomas M. Mills, Musician. 

George Wilson, Musician. 

Haywood Abemathy, Artificer. 

Augustus Abernathy, Artificer. 

A. D. Chambers, Asheville, Wagoner. 

Aberaatny, Hampton. Barnes, S., Wilson. 

Abemathy, Lewis. Barringer, Charles. 

Adamson, Robert. Beasley, James. 

Alexander, Lee. (Died.) Beaty, George. 

Alexander, William. Benson, Edward. 

Anderson, Henry. Berry, Arthur. 

Avery, Robert W. Bland, Anthony. 

Ballard, Isaac R. Roger, John. 

♦♦Promoted at Knoxville, Tenn., Novemoer 8, 1898. 



Capus, William. 
Carter, Green. 
Chambers, Clarence. 
Clinton, A. J., Jr. 
Collins, William. 
Cornelius, N., Asheville. 
Cooper, Lucius B. 
Cunningham, Ernest L. 
Cunningham, Edward. 
David, Ed. 

Edgerton, Wm., Asheville. 
Ellis, Thomas. 
Everhart, William. 
Foreman, Rufus. 
Garrison, Charles. 
Gibbs, F. E., Asheville. 
Gilmer, Walter. 
Graham, John. 
Grant, John W. 
Grier, Adam G. 
Hall, William. 
Hamlin, Benjamin. 
Henderson, John T. 
Henderson, Thomas W. 
Higgins, B., Asheville. 
Housor, Lewis. 
Houston, Simon. 
Ingram, Otis. 
Johnson, William. 
Jones, Anthony. 
Jones, William. 
Kelly, Henry. 
Knotts, Charles. 
Lemmons, William. 
Lytle, Claud. 
McConneyhead, M. 

McCorkle, Julius. 
McFadden, W. C. 
McKinney, G. F. 
McMullen, William. 
Moore, Bishop. 
Moss, Edward L. 
Neal, Brooks. 
Nelson, Richard. 
Newlan, Thomas. 
Ogles oy, F., Asheville. 
(Died.) Pharr, Floyd. 

Phifer, William. 
Robb, Fester. 
Robertson, F. J. 
Robertson, Reuben. 
Senior, Hall. 
Sims, Reuoen. 
Snowden, Emanuel. 
Springs, Alexander. 
Steele, John. 

Swepson, P. J., Asheville. 
Torrence, James. 
Wade, Joseph W. 
Wallace, Daniel. 
Walls, Edward. 
Watson, James. 
Wheeler, Thomas. 
White, James T. 
White, William. 
Williams, Harrison. 
Williams, Richard. 
Wilson, Eli. 
Withers, Hayes. 
Young, Samuel. Jr. 

Total, 113. 




Names of the Preachers who have Served the Leading Churches of 
Charlotte, With the Number of Years of Service of Each 


1855 to 1858— R. B. Jones. 
1858 to 1869— R. H. Griffith. 
1871 to 1873 — ^J. B. Boone. 
1874 to 1881— Theodore Whitfield. 
1881 to 1885— O. F. Gregory. 
1885 to 1892 — A. G. McManaway. 
1893 to 1896 — Thomas H. Pritchard. 
1896 to —A. C. Barron. 


1 82 1 to 1826— S. C. Caldwell. 

1827 to 1833 — R. H. Morrison. 

1834 to 1839 — A. J. Leavenworth. 

1839 to 1842— T. Owens, J. M. Caldwell, H. Caldwell. 

1842 to 1846 — ^J. F. W. Freeman. 

1846 to 1855 — Cyrus Johnston. 

1855 to 1857— A. W. Miller. 

1857 to 1865 — ^Alexander Sinclair. 

1865 to 1892— A. W. Miller. 

1892 to 1893 — E. Mack. 

1893 to 1896 — ^John A. Preston. 
1896 to — ^James R. Howerton. 


1873 to 1874— W. S. Plumer. 

1874 to 1881— E. H. Harding. 




\*»>l^-»*. >tL 







1882 to 1886— L. M. Woods. 
1886 to 1889— J. Y. Fair. 

1889 to 1892— R. C. Reed. 
1893 to 1895— J. H. Boyd. 
1896 to 1903— J. E. Stagg. 
1903 to — M. D. Hardin. 


1890 to 1890 — ^Jesse W. Siler. 
1890 to 1 891 — C. W. Robinson. 
1892 to 189s — F. D.Hunt. 

1896 to 1897— W. G. White. 

1897 to 1898— W. A. Wynne. 
1900 to — G. W. Belk. 


181 5 to 1817— W. B. Bamett. 

1817 to 1818— Reuben Tucker. 

1818 to 1821 — Hartwell Spain, Zacheus Dowling.. 

1 82 1 to 1822 — ^Jacob Hill. 

1822 to 1823 — T. A. Roseman. 

1823 to 1824 — ^Jeremiah Freeman. 

1824 to 1825 — Daniel Asbury. 

1825 to 1826 — Elisha Askew. 

1826 to 1827 — D. F. Christenberry. 

1827 to 1828— Daniel F. Waid. 

1828 to 1830 — Benjamin Bell. 
1830 to 1832 — ^Absalom Brown. 

1832 to 1833 — ^John J. Richardson. 

1833 to 1834— J. J. Allison. 

1834 to 1835 — David J. Allen. 

1835 to 1836 — W. J. Jackson . 

1836 to 1838— W. R. Smith. 

1838 to 1839 — W. Harrison. 

1839 to 1840 — Martin Eddy. 



1840 to ] 

[841— A. B. McGilvary. 

I 841 to ] 

[842 — C. Murchison. 

1842 to ] 

[843— C. H. Pritchard. 

1843 t^ ^ 

[845 — W. P. Mangum. 

1845 to ] 

[847 — W. Barringer. 

1847 to ] 

[849— P. A. M. Williams. 

1849 to* ^ 

[851 — ^J. J .Fleming. 

1851 to ] 

[853— A. G. Stacy. 

1853 to ] 

[854— J. W. Miller. 

1854 to ] 

[855— John R. Rickett. 

185s to ] 

[857 — ^James Stacy. 

1857 to ] 

[859— E. J. Meynardie. 

1859 to ] 

[860— J. W. Miller. 

i860 to ] 

[862— F. M. Kennedy. 

1862 to ] 

[863 — Dennis J. Simmons. 

1863 to ] 

[864— C. H. Pritchard. 

1864 to ] 

[865 — ^James Stacy. 

1865 to 

1866— W. C. Power and C. E. Lund 

1866 to ] 

[867— W. C. North. 

1867 to ] 

[869 — E. J. Meynardie. 

1869 to ] 

[870— E. W. Thompson. 

1870 to ] 

[871 — ^A. W. Mangum. 

1871 to ] 

[873— L. S. Burkhead. 

1873 to ] 

[876 — P. J. Caraway. 

1876 to ] 

[880 — A. A. Boshamer. 

1880 to ] 

[884— J. T. Bag.vell. 

1884 to ] 

[886— W. M. Robey. 

1886 to ] 

[888— F. D. Swindell. 

1888 to ] 

[892 — Solomon Pool. 

1892 to ] 

[896— W. S. Creasy. 

1896 to ] 

[898— W. W. Bays. 

1898 to ] 

[901 — H. F. Chrietzburg. 

1901 to 

— T. F. Marr. 



A Brief Sketch of the Progressive Town Which Has Grown up 
Around the College. — Has Macadam Streets and Factories, and 
a Large Business is Done. — The Corporation Dates From 1879. 

The town of Davidson College was incorporated by the 
Legislature February ii, 1879. Its boundaries include 
rectangular one mile wide and one and one-half miles long. 
The first officials were : Mayor, W. P. Williams ; Commis- 
sioners, W. J. Martin, H. P. Helper, R. L. Query, S. T. 
Thompson and F. J. Knox. 

In 1 891, the name of the town postoffice was changed 
from Davidson College to Davidson. When the college 
was established, in 1837, there was no town, but as the vil- 
lage grew, there arose a demand that it should be distin- 
guished from the college; hence the name was changed. The 
officials at this time were: Mayor, R. W. Shelton; Com- 
missioners, S. R. Neal, W. S. Graves, J. P. Monroe, J. L. 
Bratton and J. W. Summers. 

With less than 150 voters, the town, in May, 1897, voted 
for an issue of $6,000 in bonds for street improvements. As 
a result, the corporation now has two and one-eighth miles 
of macadam- streets. This has served to stimulate the pro- 
gressive spirit, and elegant homes and beautiful grounds 
are to be seen in all parts of the town. Davidson is twenty- 
two miles from Charlotte by railroad and twenty miles by 
the county road. Of the latter, ten miles of the twenty is 

There is a local tax of one-half of one per cent on the 
$100 valuation of property and $1.50 capitation tax. This 
brings in $1,300 annually, the assessed valuation of taxable 
property amounting to $253,564. In addition to this, the 
Davidson College property is valued at $160,000 and other 
exempted property at $15,000, making a total valuation of 
$428,564. The present officials are: Mayor, J. Lee Sloan, 


Jr.; Commissioners, W. R. Grey, F. J. Knox, J. S. White, 
W. H. Thompson and H. J. Brown. The population, ac- 
cording to Census reports, was 484 in 1890, and 901 in 1900. 
In September, 1903, the population, including that of the 
suburbs, was estimated at 1,250. Only about two hundred 
of these are colored people. 

The Linden Manufacturing Company, with 7,000 spin- 
dles, began operations in 1891. The plant is valued at $92,- 
000, and employs seventy persons. A cotton oil mill was 
built in 1900 and was sold to the Southern Cotton Oil Com- 
pany in 1901. It is worth $35,000. The Davidson Milling 
Company, manufacturers of flour, is capable of producing 
forty barrels of flour daily. The eleven stores have a good 
trade, and the surrounding countr}^ sells much produce. In 
1903, one thousand bushels of peach seed, which were sold 
for one dollar a bushel, were shipped from Davidson to 
Northern markets. Two thousand bales of cotton are sold 
at Davidson annually and as much more at Cornelius, a mill 
town a mile distant.* There is one hotel and numerous 
boarding houses in the town, and several small workshop's 
of various kinds. 

Until 1886, there was no church in the village, the college 
chapel being used for public worship. In that year, a part 
of the campus was given for a church site and a building 
was erected at a cost of $7,000. An equal amount was ex- 
pended for improvements in 1903. The church has 220 
members and ranks high among Presbyterian churches for 
liberality. The colored people have two churches, one 
a Methodist and the other a Presbyterian. Zion Metho- 
dist Churc'h, several miles from Davidson, has a member- 
ship of nearly five hundred. 

Davidson High School has been for several years a first- 
class preparatory school. The public school is conducted in 
connection with it for four months every year. The school 
has a good building, three teachers and an average attend- 
ance of about one hundred and twenty. 

Davidson College is situated on a beautiful campms of 





twenty acres, and the grove is occupied with numerous and 
elegant buildings. The equipment is among the best of 
Southern colleges and is being constantly improved. The 
buildings are supplied with artesian water and arrangements 
are being made for the installation of an electric light plant. 
The North Carolina Medical College is also located in the 
town, but it is not officially connected with Davidson Col- 



Brief Sketch of the Growth of the Town Which was Built Where 
President Polk was Born. — In Fifty Years it has Developed 
Into a Prosperous CommunHy With Factories and a Population 
of Seven Hundred. — Creditable Churches and Schools, and 
Names of Some Prominent Families. 

The history of the town of Pineville begins with the year 
1852. In that year the railroad was completed to that point 
and a depot and store were established. The town was in- 
corporated in 1873 with four commissioners: A. C. Wil- 
liams, John W. Morrow, W. L. Wallis, and Samuel Younts. 
According to the provisions of the charter, the mayor is 
elected annually by the commissioners. 

The population of Pineville was given at 585 by the Cen- 
sus of 1900. It was about 700 in 1903. Of this number of in- 
habitants, 125 are colored people. There are ten stores and 
they carry on a considerable trade. About three thousand 
bales of cotton are sold in the town every year, and the 
number has been as high as six thousand. 

In 1890, the Dover Yarn Mill was established, the stock- 
holders being nearly all Charlotte people. A weaving de- 
partment was added to it in 1902 and the two factories com- 
bined employ from one hundred and fifty to two hundred 
hands, and have 9,400 spindles and 400 looms. 

Pineville High Schopl occupies a good building, which 
was erected in 1898. It has three teachers and usually about 
125 students. There is no local school tax and the public 
school is conducted in connection with the High School. 
From 1896 to 1899 there was a school tax under the prc^- 
vision which required the receipts from it to be duplicated 
from the State Treasury. There are three creditable church 
buildings. The Presbyterians occupy a brick church which 
was built in 1875. The Methodist church was built in 1881, 
and the Baptist church in 1903. The colored people also 

Know all Mcn<b/^ief*Pfcfci\ts, wp 



Exc<^utors, A<1mmiftratofs or A%f*s. To which 
> Pttvmcm, wt;UVd U^ily to W ma^ic **x^ do biotl 

*^ 5 ^y^ fdi^^ ^-v ^I^*j Executor* and Adminiftra- 
* ■• rort, jotnTly arid fcvcially, firmly by thcfc Prints; 

^* ^ Sciilcd with ^^-f- Scalv, ai^Ll J.iud tiic 5?^***,^W 
*^^ D'wof* ltA^£, in tht^ Vt;»r nf our Lord one 

k^4' ilauliWiJjjVvcnK«ndrt;a, jiud rixty-yl^ J and in 
'^ ^ thndiflttb^VaT til the Rri^tt of out fovcrcign Lord 
t-MTTrhT-llW, Uy the Gt-icc oLGod, King of 
(Jrtat-lijitiiin, iTii^t^t, und Iiclind, Sc 

pti<^A '^^f^t^^^'i:^^ - --- ' — — 

otA^*^ HSt>>*fi:^ct'ulors, AdminlAr.tora, or =,ny oFdic^, 
toll and do well and t*i>ly pay, or «ufe lo be paid unto the | 

the ftbovc- named ^T?^A<*.t^ <>//^:^«v - - *^^ -^ 

i __ . ., orto/c*' bcfUln Attorney, Exccvtori, ., 

Admbiflr^tori or A^feus, ihtp^ and ftiU Sum of^-«**^ 


-Cl - -^ -— . ^ ^tvithoutnnv ff^iid Of 

fufOicr Delay, then the ftbovc OWiptiort to be void, or rife to 
tc am! rra*;n m full F^m;^ and Vheuc. •- J 

CONTRACT, 1765. 


have a Presbyterian and a Baptist church, and a school. 

Since the beginning of Pineville in 1852, a number of 
prominent families have contributed to the growth of the 
town. Among them are the Alexanders, Fishers, Spencers, 
Morrows, Younts, Ardrews, Reids, Mansons, Dominys, 
Stoug'hs, Millers and Smiths. The town is situated in one 
of the best sections of Mecklenburg county, and has the dis- 
tinction of being the birthplace of a President. The site of 
the house in which James Knox Polk was bom, is one mile 
from the depot on the Camden road. 



Characteristics of the Mecklenhurg Negro. — Comparative Effects of 
Slavery and Freedom on the Increase of Poimlation. — Tribute 
to the Memory of Major Ross. — Important Dates in Mecklen- 
burg History. — List of Blayors of Charlotte. — ^Acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly Creating Mecklenburg, Establishing Charlotte 
and Permanently Locating the Court House. — County Road 


The history of Mecklenburg involves the story of three 
races of men, viz. : the Indian, the Negro and the White 

The story of the Indian is of the past ; that race was lost 
before advancing civilization as the winter snows fade be- 
fore the suns of summer. There is no evidence to show that 
it was ever in the minds or hearts of the White race to de- 
stroy the native red race. It was simply a case of the In- 
dian's inability to adapt himself to a civilization higher 
than that to which his own development had carried him. 
So far from having a purpose to destroy the Indian, the 
white man made every effort to Christianize him and to save 
him from destruction. Even to this day, the National Gov- 
ernment is repeating in a sort of final effort the same sup- 
porting influences for the benefit of the Indian that have 
been extended by the white man ever since he landed upon 
this continent. 

As the Indian disappeared, the white man brought into 
this country another race for the advantage of its labor. Of 
these It made slaves, and so long as slavery lasted the negro 
race, in a condition of slavery, was a part of the organization 
of the Southern social and industrial fabric. As a slave, 
the negro undoubtedly made great progress in respect to his 
moral, religious and humane nature. As a slave, he un- 
doubtedly retarded civilization in the South. By the influ- 

[ . .. 



ence of slavery the civilization of the South developed as a 
sort of semi-feudal proposition rather than in accordance 
with the American Declaration of Independence and the 
Federal Constitution. By the * influence of the negro the 
South lost its manufactures and largely its commerce, and 
became practically a purely agricultural section of the nation. 
The loss of manufactures and commerce weakened the ter- 
ritory in which slavery existed. From 1830 to i860, there 
was little or no progress in wealth or in population. The 
story of the negro up to the time of his emancipation is a 
simple one. He was brought to this country regardless of 
his own will in the matter, he acquiesced easily, and without 
apparent regret subordinated himself wholly to the white 
man. These conditions were better than the conditions from 
which he came. The better element among them were willing 
to work without coercion. The more inferior types, like the 
cannibal element from the west coast of Guinea, were very 
easily coerced and the coercion appears to have been ad- 
vantageous to them'. They prospered as slaves. The free- 
dom from responsibility seems to have been agreeable to 
them and their position of subordination to the white man 
seems also to have been agreeable. 

The story of the negro as a free man is now in course of 
working out. The white race has no purpose to destroy the 
race, nor to retard its progress. As a Christian, the white 
man Avishes in good faith to do everything possible to save 
and lift the negro. What the outcome will be cannot at 
this time be predicted. Probably the better element will sur- 
vive and have a place in our Christian civilization. Proba- 
bly the inferior element will go the way that the Indian went, 
in spite of helpful influences to the contrary. In what pro^- 
portion the better element and the inferior element exist is 
purely speculative. 

It has been said that Africa is a Mosaic of races. The 
highest and lowest types of these are probably as far apart 
in traits and characteristics as the highest of them is apart 
from the traits and characteristics of the white race. In 


view of this fact, civilization may in the future deal in one 
way with one element and in a totally different way with 
another. The white man did one thing* with the Indian and 
another thing* with the negro as a slave. The high types of 
negroes — ^the product of crossing with the Arab, Syrian 
and Moor, and also many of the Central African races, such 
as those among whom Livingstone lived in the latter part 
of his life, seem at this time to be making most excellent 
progress towards attaining to the standards of the American 
white man and his civilization. On the other hand the in- 
ferior types are undoubtedly retrograding and there are 
many instances of almost complete revertal of the descend- 
ant of the cannibal to the level of his ancestors. 

Regardless of the fate of the negro, the white man will 
survive and will continue to be the controlling factor in all 
matters of advancing civilization. It has been made plain 
that slavery was an influence extremely hindering to the 
progress of the white man's civilization. 

The illustrations of negro types are taken from life and 
give some idea of the very. great varieties in the race. 

The negroes of Mecklenburg county will average far 
above those in the **low country," which means the territory 
lying on the South Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The county 
has very few of the descendants of West Coast cannibals, or 
"blue gum niggers," and a large proportion of Arab. Moor- 
ish and semi-civilized pastoral negroes from Central Africa. 


In gathering and studying statistics relating to Mecklen- 
burg county, some rather interesting facts are made clear. 
The accompanying table shows the population of Charlotte 
City, Charlotte Township, Mecklenburg county, and North 
Carolina, as completely as it can be obtained from 1790 to 
1909. It is noticeable that the population of the county^ 
decreased between 1830 and i860. This decrease was partly 
due to the creation of Union county, which took 5,000 from 
Mecklenburg's population, but after allowing for this, the 



increase would be insignificant and there would still remain 
a decrease of 1,800 to be accounted for between 1830 and 
1840. The stationary condition during the thirty years in 
which the institution of slavery was dominant was mainly 
attributable to emigration. Many of those who believed in 
and advocated slavery, emigrated to the Southwest to find 
more land ; while those who had least interest and sympathy 
with the institution emigrated to the Northwest. 
















13.914** ' 


































* Creation of Cabarros in 1792 took 4,000 from Mecklenburg. 
** Creation of Union in 1842 took 5000 from Mecklenburg 

After making allowance for loss of population by the con- 
struction of Union county, the following comparative state- 
ments are found to be true . 

Increase in population in Mecklenburg county in the three 
decades between 1830 and i860 was practically nothing. 

Increase in the three decades between 1870 and 1900 is in 
round numbers 125 per cent. It becomes clear that this is 
not merely the result of purely local conditions when the 
figures for the State are examined. 

This table shows that the increase in population in North 
Carolina since the abolition of slave labor and the conse- 
quent establishment of free white labor and commerce and 
manufactures has far surpassed the increase in the time 
when slave labor was predominant. 


It may be observed that the increase in the one decade 
from 1870 to 1880 is about the same as that in the four de- 
cades preceding 1870. This latter includes the losses in- 
curred in the war, but there remains the comprehensive fact 
that in the four decades in which slavery was practically 
dominant, the increase in the population of the State was 
about the same as in the first decade succeeding the down- 
fall of the slavery system. 

Prior to 1800, the trend of emigration was to Mecklen- 
burg county, but it was checked with the introduction of 
slavery about the beginning of the nineteenth century. For 
twenty-five years it became smaller and then the tide turned 
in the other direction, and until the Civil War, Mecklenburg 
people emigrated to the Northwest or Southwest. Since 
the South has turned to manufactures and the negro's value 
as a laborer has consequently decreased, it is probably that 
emigration will again turn to this section. 


*'Among the men who nobly fell that desperate evening 
(July I, 1864), in no feeling of partiality allow us to drop 
a tribute to the memory of Major E. A. Ross, of the Eleventh 
(Bethel) North Carolina Regiment, a promising young of- 
ficer. At a point where the battle was raging most furiously, 
this regiment was pressing on unquailing in the face of a 
fearful iron and leaden storm when the colonel fell severely 
wounded, he (Ross) dashed to his place, and in gallantly 
leading his men on in the desperate charge, received a mortal 
wound and fell shouting his men on to victory. In the first 
battle of his country (that of Bethel) he had won his maiden 
laurels. With "Bethel" emblazoned upon his regimental 
flag at the instance of the State, he had seen it wave victo- 
riously over the beaten foe on the soil of his native State (at 
the battle of White Hall, N. C.) And thus fell this gallant 

•By Daniel B. Rea, of Mecklenburg, m "Sketches of Hampton's 
Cavalry." Major Ross was only 20 years of age. His remains were 
interred in tlie Charlotte Cemetery November 24, 1865. 




BILL OF SALE, 1747. '\^\f,-/ 


young officer, just as its tattered folds were waving over the 
first victory in the enemy's land, gloriously dying 'with the 
battle cry upon his lips and the blaze of victory in his eye.' 
He sleeps his long sleep on the enemy's soil; and may no 
fanatical foot ever press the sacred sod upon his bosom. And 
when the final shout of spiritual victory 'shall swell land 
and sea,' may his noble spirit and the many others who have 
died for human liberty, go up washed in the blood of Him 
who died for the spiritual liberty of mankind." 


1740 — First Settlers. 

1 761 — Creation of Try on Coi:r:ty. 

1 761, March 15 — Birth of Andrew Jackson. 
1762 — First School Teacher. 

1762, December 11 — Creation of Mecklenburg. 
1764 — First Physician. 

1765 — Beginning of Charlotte. 

1768 — Incorporation of Charlotte. 

1 77 1 — Queen's College Established. , 

1775, May 20 — Declaration of Independence. 

1780, September 26 — The Hornets' Nest. 

1780, October 3 — Surprise at Mclntyre's. 

1 781, February i — Death of Gen. Davidson. 
1790 — Discovery of Gold. 

1 791, May 25 — George Washington in Charlotte. 

1792 — Creation of Cabarrus County. 

1795, November 2 — Birth of James Knox Polk. 

1805 — Nathaniel Alexander Elected Governor. 

181 5 — First Church in Charlotte. 

1824 — First Newspaper in Charlotte. 

1834 — Branch of State Bank Established. 

1837 — Davidson College. 

1837 — ^United States Mint. 

1852 — Railroad Completed to Charlotte. 

1854 — Macadamized Streets. 

1858— C. M. I. Opened. 


i860, Etecember i — County Secession Convention. 

i860, April 20^Mint Occupied by Local Militia, 

1865, April 15 to 20— Jefferson Davis in Charlotte. 

1867 — Biddle University. 

1873 — Graded School. 

1875, May 20 — Independence Centennial Celebration. 

1876 — St. Peter's Hospital. 

1 881— First Cotton Mill. 

1882— Water Works Plant. 

1882— Cotton Seed Oil Mill. 

1884 — Macadamized Roads. 

1887— Street Cars. 

1889 — Evening News, 

1892, February i — Charlotte Observer. 

1893 — North Carolina Medical College. 

1895 — Presbyterian College. 

1897 — Elizabeth College. 


185 1 to 1852 — ^William K. Reid. 

1852 to 1853 — Alexander Graham.**** 

1853 to 1857 — William F. Davidson. 
1857 to 1859 — David Parks. 

1859 to 1861 — ^Jennings B. Kerr. 

1861 to 1862 — William A. Owens. 

1862 to 1863 — Robert F. Davidson.** 

1863 to 1864— L. S. Williams.** 

1864 to 1865 — Samuel A. Harris. 

1865 to 1866— H. M. Pritchard. 

1866 to 1867— Samuel A. Harris. 

1867 to 1868— F. W. Ahrens.*** 

1868 to 1869— H. M. Pritchard.*** 

♦This official was known as "Intendent" until 1861. Prior to 1851, 
there had been merely a Chairman of the Town Commissioners. The 
town officers were elected annually until 1881. Since then, bi-enni- 


1869 to 1871— C. Dowd. 
1 87 1 to 1873 — ^John A. Young. 
1873 to 1875 — William F. Davidson. 
1875 to 1878 — William Johnston. 

1878 to 1879— B. R. Smith. 

1879 to 1880— F. I. Osborne. 

1880 to 1883— F. S. DeWolfe. 
1883 to 1884— W. C. Maxwell. 
1885 to 1887— William Johnston. 
1887 to 1891— F. B. McDowell. 

1 891 to 1895 — R. J. Brevard. 
1895 to 1897 — ^J- H. Weddington. 
1897 to 1899 — 'E. B. Springs. 
1899 to 1900 — ^J. D. McCall. 
1 901 to 1905 — Peter Marshall Brown. 

*** Appointed by Gov. Holden. 

♦♦Elected to fill vacancy. 

♦♦First "Intendent" elected by popuiar vote. 


{From Iredell's North Carolina^ Lara^s, Page 210^ Published 

in 1791.) 

I. Whereas by Reason of the large Extent of the County 
of Anson, it is generally inconvenient for the Inhabitants to 
attend Court of the aforesaid County, general Musters, and 
other public Duties by Law required : 

II. Be it therefore efiacted by the Governor, Council and 
Assembly, and it is Ivereby enacted by the Authority of the 
^ame. That from and after the first Day of February, the 
said County of Anson shall be, and is hereby divided into 
two distinct Counties, by a Line beginning at Lord Car- 

♦Petitlon presented November 12, 1762. Bill introduced November 
17. Passed December 2. Ratified December 11. Signed by Gov. 
Arthur Dobbs, President James Hasell and Speaker John Ashe. 
(Colonial Records, Vol. VI, Page 891.) 


teret's Line, six Miles North-East from Captain Charles 
Hart's plantation on Buffalo Creek, and to run froni thence 
to the Mouth of Clear Creek, which empties itself into Rocky 
River, below Captain Adam Alexander's; and from thence 
due South to the Bounds of the Province of South Carolina. 
And that all that Part of said County which lies to the East- 
ward of said dividing Line, shall be a distinct County, and 
remain and be called by the Name of Anson County; and 
that all that Part of the said County lying to the Westward 
of said dividing Line, shall be thenceforth one other distinct 
County, and called by the name of Mecklenburg. 


{From Martin's Acts of the General Assembly, Pages 55 
and 56, Published in 1794.) 

I. Whereas it hath been represented to this Assembly 
that three hundred and sixty acres of land was granted to 
John Frohock, Abraham Alexander and Thomas Polk, as 
commissioners, intrust for the county aforesaid, for erect- 
ing a court house, prison, and stocks, for the use of said 
county; which said three hundred and sixty acres of land 
was afterwards by them laid ofif into a town and common ; 
and that part of the said three hundred and sixty acres of 
land hath likewise been laid out into lots, of half an acre 
each, on some of which good habitable houses have been 
erected; and that by reason of the healthiness of the place 
aforesaid and convenient situation thereof for trade, the 
same might soon become considerable, if it was erected into 
a town by lawful authority ; to Which the said John Frohock, 
Abraham Alexander and Thomas Polk, commissioners 
aforesaid, who are now seized in fee of the said three hun- 
dred and sixty acres, and those who claim under them, hav- 
ing consented : 

IL Be it therefore enacted, by the Governor, Council and 

♦Ratified December 3, 1768. (Colonial Records, Vol. VII, Page 


Preachers, Mechanics and Farm Laborers. From Highlands of Mid- 
dle Africa. Color, Dark Bronze. High Forehead, Woolly Hair. 

Butlers, Body Servants and Mechanics. From Northeast Ck>ast. 
Color, Dark Bronze to Red Gold. Straight Nose, Thin Lips and 
Woolly Hair. Women Very Handsome. Arabs Ally Themselvea 
With This Type as an Equal. 

Preachers, Mechanics and Farm Laborers. From Highlands of Mid- 
dle Africa. Color, Dark Bronze. High Forehead, Woolly Hair. 

House Servants and Farm Laborers. The "Mammy" Was Usually 
From This Type. Pastoral People From Upper and Middle Nilo^ 
"Strikingly Long and Lean/' Predominantly Dark, With Shad- 
ing Toward Gray. 

Farm Laborers. West Coast Color, Black. Flat Nose, Thick Lips^ 
Receding Forehead, Kinky Hair. With Savage and Cannibak 
Instincts. Colloquially known as "Blue-Gum Nigger." 


Assembly and by the authority of the same, that the said 
three hundred and sixty acres of land, so laid off by the com- 
missioners or trustees as aforesaid, be and the same is hereby 
constituted, erected, and established, a town and town com- 
mon, and shall be called' by the name of Charlotte, 

III. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, 
That John Fro hock, Abraham Alexander, Thomas Polk, 
Richard Berry, Esquires, and George Allen, and every of 
them, be, and are hereby appointed directors and trustees, 
for directing the building and carrying on the said town ; 
and they shall stand seized of an indefeasible estate, in fee, 
in the said three hundred and sixty acres of land, to and 
for the uses, intents and purposes, hereby expressed and de- 
clared; and they, or the majority of them, shall have full 
power and authority to meet, as often as they shall think 
necessary; and cause an exact plan of one hundred acres of 
the said land to be made, as near as may be, agreeable to the 
streets and lots already laid out, and. the residue thereof shall 
be and remain for a common thereto; and that the said direc- 
tors shall insert a mark or number on each lot; which said 
plan shall be kept in some convenient place in the said town, 
for the view of such persons who have, or incline to have a 
lot or lots in the same. 

IV. And whereas eighty lots already laid off in the said 
town, have been purchased; Be it therefore enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, that the said directors, or the majority 
of them, shall make and execute deeds for granting and con- 
veying the said eighty lots to the purchasers, their heirs and 
assigns, forever; and also to every other per^n who shall 
purchase any other lot or lots in the said town at the cost and 
charges of the grantee to whom the same shall be conveyed, 
he or they paying to the treasurer herein after appointed, the 
annual rent of one shilling, for each and every lot; and 
every person claiming any^t or lots by virtue of any such 
conveyance, shall and may hold the same in fee simple. 

V. (Provided, nevertheless, that every grantee of any lot 
or lots in the said town so conveyed, or hereafter to be con- 


veyed, shall, within three years next after the date of the 
conveyance for the same, erect and build on each lot so con- 
veyed, one well framed sawed or hew^ed log house, twenty 
feet in lenj^h, and sixteen feet wide, high in the clear, with 
brick or stone ciiimney or chimnies, or proportionable to 
such dimensions, if such grantee shall have two or more lots 
in said town : and if the owner of any lot shall not pursue or 
comply with the directions of this act prescribed, for build- 
ing and finishing a house thereon, then such lot upon which 
such house shall not be built and finished, shall be vested in 
the* said directors; and they or the majority of them may, 
and are hereby imi)owered and authorized, to sell such lot 
for the best price that can be had, to any person applying 
for the same, in such manner and under such restrictions, as 
they could or might have done if such lot had not before 
been sold or granted ; and the money arising by such sale to 
be applied as the directors, or the majority of them, shall 
think proper, for the use of the town. 

\^I. And be it further enacted, by the authority afore- 
said, that Thomas Polk be, and is hereby api>ointed treasurer 
of the said town ; who shall enter into bond, w^ith sufficient 
security, to the directors of the said town, in the penal sum 
of five hundred pounds that he will well and truly account 
with and pay the monies he shall receive in virtue of his 
office, to such person or persons as by this act he is directed : 
and on the death or removal out of the county of the said 
treasurer, the remaining directors, or the majority of theni, 
by certificate under their hands and seals, shall nominate and 
appoint one other of the said directors to be treasurer of the 
said town : and so in like manner, from time to time, as often 
as the said office shall become vacant as aforesaid; and such 
treasurer or treasurers shall enter into bond, with security, 
in the same manner as the treasurer by this act appointed. 

Yll,' And be it further enacted, by the authority afore- 
said, that in case of the death, refusal to act, or removal out 
of the county, of any of the said directors, the surviving or 
other directors, or the majority of them, shall, and ^ are 
hereby impowered, from time to time, by instrument of 


writing, under their respective hands and seals, to nominate 
some other person, being an inhabitant or freeholder in said 
town, in the place of him so dying, or refusing to act, or re- 
moving out of the said county ; which director so nominated 
and appointed shall from thenceforth, have the like power 
and authority, in all things in the matters herein contained, 
as if he had been expressed by name, and appointed by this 


(From Martin's Acts of th\e Genercd Assembly,) 

I. Whereas^ by an act intitled. An act for dividing the 
county of Mecklenburg, and other purposes, the court of the 
county was directed to be held in the court house then built 
during the term of seven years, which said term is rear ex- 
piring; and it having been represented that the removal of 
the seat of the court from the said court house, and the dis- 
posal of the same, agreeable to the before recited act, would 
be inconvenient to many of the inhabitants of the said county 
and discourage the trade and commerce of said town; 

II. Be it therefore enacted, by the Governor, Council, and 
Assembly, and by the authority of the same, that from and 
after the passing of this act, the said court house already 
built in Charlotte town, be, continue, and remain the court 
house of the said county of Mecklenburg, and the inferior 
court of the said county shall hereafter be constantly held 
therein ; any thing in the said act contained to the contrary 

III. And whereas the frequent firing of guns, running 
horse races, and playing at long bullets, in the said town, is 
found to have a dangerous tendency; to prevent which. Be 

♦Passed in March, 1773, but vetoed by Gov. Martin because of 
technical errors. Finally ratified March 19, 1774. (Colonial Rec- 
ords, Vol. IX, Page 862.) 


it eimcted by the aiUhority aforesaid, that from and after 
the passing" thereof, no person whatsoever shall shoot with 
a gun (except it be to kill cattle or hogs) or immoderately 
ride or strain any horse or horses, or play at long bullets, 
within the limits of the said town, under the penalty of pay- 
ing the sum of twenty shillings for each offence; to be re- 
covered by a warrant, before any Justice of the Peace of the 
said county, by one of the trustees. 


IV. And whereas by an act, for establishing a town in 

Mecklenburg county, every person having a deed of any lot 
in the said town of Cliarlotte is required to build a house, of 
the dimensions in the said act specified, within three years 
after the date of the conveyance for the same, which is 
found to be injurious to the inhabitants of the said town; 
Be it enacted, by tlie authority aforesaid, that no person or 
persons shall forfeit his or their lot or lots for not bitilding 
on the same, except such lots shall front on one of the main 
streets in the said town; any law, usag^, or custom, to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

V. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, 
that every taxable person in the said town shall be obliged 
to work on the streets thereof six days in every year, if re- 
quired by the overseer, or find some person to work for him, 
under the penalty of five shillings for every day he shall re- 
fuse or neg'lect ; shall be recovered as is hereinbefore directed. 

VI. And whereas some of the trustees of the said town 
are dead, and others removed out of the province; Be it en- 
acted by the authority aforesaid, that Jeremiah McCaflerty, 
Robert Blliot, Williami Patterson, and Isaac Alexander, be 
added to the trustees fomierly appointed, and they are 
hereby invested with the same powers and authorities as the 
other trustees : anything to the contrary notwithstanding. 

VII. And be it further enacted, by the authority afore- 
said, that all fines arising- in virtue of this act, shall be ap- 
plied towards clearing and repairing the streets in the said 
town of Cliarlotte. 



The first legislation in connection with the movement 
which has resulted in Mecklenburg's good roads, was by the 
General Assembly of 1879. The bill enacted was introduced 
by Capt. S. B. Alexander, who by this and subsequent efforts 
in the same direction, came to be known as the '^Father of 
Good Roads in Mecklenburg/' This law, which provided 
for a special road tax applicable to all residents of the coun- 
ty, met with the disapproval of the people and was repealed 
in 1881. 

Capt. Alexander and others continued their efforts in the 
county, and in 1884, Capt. Alexander was elected to the 
State Senate with the avowed purpose of re-enacting the 
good roads legislation. The bill, which is substantially the 
road law at the present time, was introduced into the House 
of Representatives by Capt. \V. E Ardrey, and was passed 
after a determined fig'ht. 

References: General Road Laws, Chapter 50, Laws of 
1 901, Page 195, Amended to General Road Law, Chapter 
445, Laws of 1903, Page 788; Charlotte Township Law, 
Chapter 615, Laws of 1901, Page 857; Amendment to Char- 
lotte Township Law, Chapter 380, Laws of 1903, Page 629. 

♦Chapter 36, Volume I, contains the account of'Road Building."